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From NPR News, this is ALL THINGS CONSIDERED. I'm Audie Cornish.


And I'm Melissa Block.


BLOCK: Those were the expert fingers of the legendary pianist Van Cliburn. He died today of bone cancer at home in Forth Worth, Texas. Cliburn was 78 years old. He soared to world fame in 1958 when he won the first Tchaikovsky International Music Competition in Moscow. It was the height of the Cold War, and Cliburn returned to a ticker tape parade in New York City. Bill Zeeble of member station KERA in Dallas offers this appreciation.

BILL ZEEBLE, BYLINE: A tall, slim Harvey Lavan Cliburn Jr. was 23, just a few years out of New York's famed Juilliard music school when the first Tchaikovsky competition beckoned. Here was a chance to further his career and visit a far-off place the Texan had dreamt of since he was five.


VAN CLIBURN: And I saw this photograph of the Church of St. Basil. It was just breathtaking. And I said, Mommy, Daddy, take me there. Oh, surely, son, yes.

ZEEBLE: That's Van Cliburn recorded in his Fort Worth home in 2008.


CLIBURN: And, of course, I had heard all the famous stories about the Moscow Conservatory, that's just a legendary place, and St. Petersburg Conservatory. And to play on that stage where so many great, famous people had performed was just breathtaking.

ZEEBLE: In April of 1958, Cliburn became one of those famed musicians. His performance of Tchaikovsky's "First Piano Concerto" was a stunner.


STUART ISACOFF: He played like an immortal. He played like a legend. He seemed to show them more of who they were than their own players.

ZEEBLE: Stuart Isacoff is a music journalist, pianist, and composer. He says the tension of the times helped seal Cliburn's status as an icon.

ISACOFF: In some ways there was a perfect cultural storm taking place at that event because it was the middle of the Cold War. The Russians had launched Sputnik. People like me were diving under desks at school in case the Russians dropped the atomic bomb on us.

ZEEBLE: Cliburn was dubbed the American Sputnik. That November, in the midst of an international concert tour, he came back to Fort Worth for a dinner honoring his music-teacher mother. He recalled one of the speakers had a surprise.


CLIBURN: Well, ladies and gentleman, I have a check here for $10,000, and I wish for it to be the first prize of a competition, international piano competition. I want it to be named for my good friend, Rildia B. Cliburn's little boy, Van.

ZEEBLE: A foundation was established, and the first competition was held in 1962. But Cliburn shrugged off all the attention, saying he was just a musical servant. Richard Rodzinski says the pianist took the words seriously. Rodzinski oversaw the Cliburn competition for more than 20 years. He's now general director of the Tchaikovsky Competition.

RICHARD RODZINSKI: Serving is a big word in his vocabulary. He refers to presidents of the United States who serve a term a queen who will serve her people. And he feels that he is serving the purpose of being able to bring beautiful music, as he sees it, from his garden to an audience.


ZEEBLE: Cliburn's recording of the Tchaikovsky concerto went platinum, the first million-seller in classical music history.

JOHN GIORDANO: He gets a sound out of a piano that sings like nobody I've ever heard.

ZEEBLE: John Giordano has been Cliburn's friend since 1973. For decades he conducted the Fort Worth Symphony and has been involved in nearly every Cliburn competition.

GIORDANO: Opera is his favorite medium. So he emulates the voice and is cognizant of the way a singer would play a particular a phrase, which ends up, whether people realize it or not, reaching into their hearts.


ZEEBLE: Including the heart of Russian pianist Olga Kern, who won the Cliburn Competition in 2001. Her musician parents heard and loved Cliburn in 1958 and played his music at home.

OLGA KERN: I grew up on it, you know, and absolutely loved it. I loved how he transformed that music to a different level. He opened for Russian musicians how this Russian music can sound completely different, more melodic, more softer, more dramatic. It sounded so new and so fresh and it was incredible.


ZEEBLE: The reverence among the Russian people persists. In 2011, for the first time since his 1958 victory, Cliburn returned to the Tchaikovsky Competition as an honorary judge. He was mobbed on the street. Yet Cliburn was not without critics. In the late 1970s, the pianist withdrew from the public stage. Some blamed burnout. Others said he had lost his touch. Pianist Veda Kaplinsky, who teaches at Juilliard and has served as a Cliburn Competition judge, has a different answer.

VEDA KAPLINSKY: He was a perfectionist, which is the reason why he eventually left the concert scene. He was never satisfied with what he could do. He always wanted to do more.

ZEEBLE: He did more behind the scenes. He endowed scholarships at various music schools. He funded some of the Cliburn Competition scholarships. But he may be best remembered for his 1958 victory in Moscow. Four years ago, he recalled riding through New York City surrounded by cheering fans.


CLIBURN: And as I was waving to them, I was thinking, isn't this wonderful? Not for me, they're honoring classical music. I was only an instrument.

ZEEBLE: Those closest to him say that modesty was the real thing. Before arriving in Moscow two years ago, he asked friends, in all sincerity, do you really think they'll remember me? For NPR News, I'm Bill Zeeble in Dallas.

BLOCK: Van Cliburn died today at home in Forth Worth. He was 78.

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