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These months following the 2012 election have been a time of assessment for a group that spent millions of undisclosed dollars on the campaign. The conservative industrialists David and Charles Koch funded a network of advocacy groups. For all their spending, the results were grim.
So as NPR's Peter Overby reports, changes are coming.
PETER OVERBY, BYLINE: The Koch brothers rank among the top money men in politics. They convene other wealthy conservatives twice a year to strategize and pledge money. And they've launched a network of groups ranging from the libertarian think tank CATO Institute to the not-quite-political organization Americans For Prosperity.
But last fall, things did not go well for them. One problem threatens to pierce the veil of secrecy that shields the donors of $11 million. The 11 million went to an obscure political committee in California, which was advertising on two ballot questions there. It caught the attention of the California Fair Political Practices Commission, which opened an investigation.
The commission chair is Ann Ravel.
ANN RAVEL: We are bound by our statute, the Political Reform Act, to require disclosure in campaigns. And that is exactly what we're doing.
OVERBY: It turned out the money had moved quickly along a chain of tax-exempt, so-called social-welfare groups from Virginia to Arizona to California. One group was the Center to Protect Patient Rights, which is run by a political strategist with long-standing ties to the Kochs. Pass-throughs like this are common among politically active social welfare groups. But California law is tougher than federal law: Disclosure means saying where the money originated - anything less is considered money laundering.
Ravel says the commission hopes for results by mid-year.
RAVEL: We still don't know who the actual donors are to the patient rights organization or to the others.
OVERBY: The strategist, Sean Noble, didn't respond to an NPR query.
Koch Industries has said the Kochs were not involved, directly or indirectly, in the ballot initiative battles. A company spokeswoman said they would not respond to questions for this story.
As the California probe continues, the Koch brothers postponed their winter money-and-strategy gathering. Now it's set for April. The reason: the brothers are analyzing their vision, strategies and capabilities.
Tim Phillips is president of Americans For Prosperity, the biggest of the Koch groups.
TIM PHILLIPS: The only way the long-term actually is successful is if you measure yourself and evaluate yourself, year in-year out. So we've done that after '12, just like we do it every year.
OVERBY: AFP ran more than 51,000 ads in the presidential campaign, almost all of them attacking President Obama. But Phillips says the real action was in ground organizing, where they couldn't match the Obama campaign.
PHILLIPS: It's maybe not sexy. It takes a lot of time. But we have seen, ruefully so, what happens when you don't have a ground game.
OVERBY: Most of AFP's field staff was laid off after the election, not because AFP was playing partisan politics, Phillips says; that would violate tax laws. He says it just makes sense to talk about issues when voters are paying attention.
PHILLIPS: As you get closer to an election that's a good time to go out and have a conversation with the American people to say, look, President Obama's agenda is failing or this senator or that House member.
OVERBY: And in this political off-season two new Koch groups are ramping up. The Association for American Innovation is set up as a business league. There are indications it will promote free market bills in state legislatures, much as the American Legislative Exchange Council does now.
American Commitment, another social welfare group, aims to carve out a messaging niche in between think tanks like the Cato Institute, where Koch allies sit on the board, and frontline groups like AFP.
Phil Kerpen is the head of American Commitment.
PHIL KERPEN: What we're trying to do is to take kind of the best research and analysis, and get it into a form that's more appropriate to a mass audience; things like columns and talking points, blog posts, op-eds.
OVERBY: Kerpen says it makes sense that the Koch brothers would reassess things. He says any good businessmen would look at what was spent and what they got for it. Next time, the Koch brothers intend to get more.
Peter Overby, NPR News, Washington.