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ROBERT SIEGEL, HOST:

From NPR News, this is ALL THINGS CONSIDERED. I'm Robert Siegel.

AUDIE CORNISH, HOST:

And I'm Audie Cornish.

More moves and countermoves today between the U.S. and North Korea. The Pentagon announced plans to move a missile defense system to Guam in the Pacific, and now reports that North Korea says it has, quote, "ratified a nuclear strike on the U.S." It may only be bluster, but today in Washington, Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel said the U.S. can't afford to dismiss North Korea's daily threats.

SECRETARY CHUCK HAGEL: It only takes being wrong once, and I don't want to be the secretary of defense who was wrong once. So we will continue to take these threats seriously.

SIEGEL: And those threats are creating new challenges for the U.S. elsewhere in Asia. As NPR's Tom Gjelten reports, South Korea and Japan may be rethinking their defense policies.

TOM GJELTEN, BYLINE: South Korea's capital, Seoul, with a population of more than 10 million, has for years been within easy shot of North Korea's vast artillery. For much of that time, the South Korean attitude has been: Do whatever is necessary to maintain peaceful relations. General Walter Sharp, who commanded U.S. forces in Korea until 2011, recalls the prevailing sentiment when he arrived.

GENERAL WALTER SHARP: You talk to a South Korean when I got over there in 2008: We just got to keep this calm. We don't want to challenge them too much. And it was all because of where Seoul is and the damage that could come with where North Korea has their artillery and all that.

GJELTEN: Plus South Koreans didn't think North Korea would ever attack them. But General Sharp says that attitude changed after North Korea sunk a South Korean ship in March 2010 and then shelled a South Korean military base a few months later. South Koreans got really angry. The new feeling was: We shouldn't take this anymore.

And now, with the new North Korean leader, Kim Jong Un, threatening nuclear strikes on South Korea, on Japan and, again today, on the United States, there is a new determination across the region to adopt a tougher line. Senator Bob Corker of Tennessee noticed that change in attitude last week on a visit to Japan and South Korea.

SENATOR ROBERT CORKER: When you see this kind of activity, it puts pressure on other countries in the region as their populations themselves become concerned about an immature leader, 30 years old, being bellicose in this way and threatening that part of the world.

GJELTEN: There's actually talk now in Japan and in South Korea that they should have nuclear weapons of their own to match North Korea's threat. The United States opposes that.

But now U.S. officials have another challenge to deal with: The South Korean government wants to renegotiate a civil nuclear accord with the U.S. to be able to reprocess spent nuclear fuel. Theoretically, it could set South Korea up to make nuclear weapons of its own. Senator Corker says every leader he met with in Seoul pressed him on the reprocessing issue.

CORKER: They say it's for civilian purposes only, that there's a technique that they'll be using that would not allow these to be turned into nuclear weapons. But in the backdrop of this, again the president is not in any way pushing for this, but the population is becoming more oriented that way.

GJELTEN: U.S. officials have long resisted South Korea's request for reprocessing permission. Some U.S. analysts suspect the South Koreans may actually want to be positioned to build nuclear weapons. William Tobey, who worked on non-proliferation issues in the George W. Bush administration, says he's not convinced by the South Koreans' arguments that reprocessing nuclear fuel makes sense for economic and energy reasons.

WILLIAM TOBEY: I wouldn't question South Korean motives. On the other hand, as you go through the arguments that have been advanced in favor of reprocessing, it's really possible to knock them down one by one.

GJELTEN: U.S. officials have been reassuring the South Koreans that the United States will protect them, and they've pointed out that allowing South Korea to reprocess spent nuclear fuel might prompt less reliable countries to demand the same rights. But with North Korea's leader swearing each day that he's ready to launch a nuclear war, those U.S. assurances don't carry as much weight as they otherwise might. Tom Gjelten, NPR News, Washington.

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