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It's MORNING EDITION from NPR News. Good morning, I'm David Greene.

Today in "Your Health," more than 36 million Americans have some degree of hearing loss. Many of those people would find life easier if they used hearing aids. But most people who would benefit from hearing aids, still don't use them. NPR's Jon Hamilton reports on some technological advances that make today's hearing aids vastly superior to those of just a few years ago.

JON HAMIILTON, BYLINE: For someone who is hard of hearing, a radio interview can take a little extra work. For one thing, you have to get a hearing aid to work with headphones.

RICHARD EINHORN: If, by any chance, I can get it a little bit louder in my left ear, that would be great.

HAMIILTON: Richard Einhorn lives in New York.

(SOUNDBITE OF MUSIC)

HAMIILTON: He's a composer.

(SOUNDBITE OF MUSIC)

HAMIILTON: Einhorn says until a couple of years ago, his ears weren't just good; they were golden.

EINHORN: I was the kind of person who would walk into a space, clap my hands once, and be able to decide whether or not I could record a symphony orchestra there and have it sound good.

HAMIILTON: Then one morning in 2010, Einhorn woke up and realized everything had changed.

EINHORN: Instantly I knew something was horribly wrong. There was an enormous, violent buzzing in my ears - unbelievably loud. And I realized that my right ear had gone completely deaf.

HAMIILTON: Einhorn was experiencing a rare problem called sudden deafness. He would never get back any useful hearing in his right ear, and sounds in his left ear remain very faint. So Einhorn bought a top-of-the-line digital hearing aid for his left ear. He also invested in devices that help him talk on the phone, listen to live music, and carry on conversations in noisy restaurants. Einhorn says the solutions aren't perfect, but they're pretty good.

EINHORN: I compose every day. I see my friends. I go to movies. I go to concerts - I do everything.

HAMIILTON: All that would have been a lot harder if Einhorn had lost his hearing just a couple of decades ago. Back then, most hearing aids were still analog devices with severe limitations. But in the digital age, hearing aids and so-called assistive listening devices have become smaller, smarter and much more powerful. Matthew Bakke directs the government's Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center on Hearing Enhancement.

MATTHEW BAKKE: I started in hearing aid research in the '80s. We were working, at that time, at the City University of New York on a digital hearing aid. The digital hearing aid was the size of a refrigerator.

HAMIILTON: But like all things digital, it shrank fast. By the 1990s, digital hearing aids had gotten small enough to wear behind the ear. And Bakke, who is also on the faculty at Gallaudet University, says since then, they've addressed many of the problems that plagued earlier devices - problems like sounds that are very loud.

BAKKE: In the old days, with an analog hearing aid, if something got too loud you got distortion.

HAMIILTON: Not anymore. Digital sound processing also cut down on the annoying squawks caused by feedback. And modern hearing aids are programmed to amplify only those sound frequencies a person has trouble hearing. Bakke says the latest units even know which direction a sound is coming from.

BAKKE: Typically, there is a bubble of amplification in front of you, and some suppression behind you.

HAMIILTON: Which is, more or less, what our own ears are designed to do. Bakke says features like directional listening are possible because today's hearing aids are controlled by tiny computers that analyze and manipulate sound. This allows them to do things like reduce the drone of an air conditioner while amplifying speech sounds.

Larry Medwetsky is an audiologist at Gallaudet who lost most of his hearing when he was 3. He didn't get hearing aids until he was 13, and they were the analog type. Medwetsky says his hearing aids helped in quiet rooms. But when things got noisy, he had to turn them off. And he says they didn't amplify the full spectrum of audible sound

LARRY MEDWETSKY: The newer hearing aids have a much broader bandwidth. So, to me, I'm able to hear the instruments better. I'm hearing a richness that I never heard before.

HAMIILTON: Medwetsky says he uses ear molds that fill the ear canal. That's the best solution for people like him, with hearing loss that affects the entire range of sound frequencies.

But most people with age-related hearing loss only need to boost high-frequency sounds. And they can use so-called open-fit hearing aids, which leave much of the ear canal open. Medwetsky says that allows low-frequency sounds to enter the ear naturally. It also prevents sounds from getting trapped. So hearing-aid users no longer hear their own voice sounding like it's inside a barrel.

MEDWETSKY: One of the reasons why people returned hearing aids, in the past, is that they did not like how their own voice sounded. And so this is a technology that made a tremendous difference; and it's become, now, the prominent type of hearing aid style. It allows you to hear what you need to hear and not - to block what you don't need, you know, amplified.

HAMIILTON: Other hearing aid advances include units that can receive Bluetooth audio from a cellphone, and waterproof devices that can be worn swimming.But hearing aids still have their limitations. Richard Einhorn, the composer, says he misses the subtle, everyday sounds he used to find comforting - sounds like the swish of a towel landing in a laundry hamper.

EINHORN: When I do hear them through a hearing aid, they sound wrong. They sound harsh, and they sound tinny rather than comforting.

HAMIILTON: And Einhorn says hearing aids still don't work well in every environment.

EINHORN: We have huge expectations that hearing aids will solve all our hearing problems. But for specific situations - like restaurant listening, like listening in a classroom to your teacher - hearing aids need to be augmented with additional devices.

HAMIILTON: Like microphones that can be placed close to the source of a sound. Einhorn says the problem with the microphones on hearing aids is that they are often too far away. He made a recording to demonstrate the problem this causes when he's trying to have a conversation in a noisy place.

(SOUNDBITE OF RECORDING)

(LOUD BACKGROUND NOISE)

DANA MULVANY: (Unintelligible)

HAMIILTON: The woman you can just barely hear is Dana Mulvany, who often writes about the challenges faced by people who are hard of hearing. Here's what she sounds like when Einhorn moves the microphone closer.

(SOUNDBITE OF RECORDING)

MULVANY: And it took about a year to realize that I had hearing loss in both ears.

HAMIILTON: Einhorn says when he has lunch with friends, he often gives each of them a microphone to wear around their neck. A special device sends the signal from these microphones directly to his good ear. But that technology can't help in other situations, like when he's trying to hear directions at a subway booth.

(LOUD BACKGROUND NOISE)

UNIDENTIFIED WOMAN: Take the (unintelligible) train to 14th Street. Get off and get the L train to Becker; that's heading towards Brooklyn.

HAMIILTON: Fortunately, New York subway booths have started using an old technology known as a loop system. It takes sounds from a microphone inside the booth and broadcasts it to a receiver called a telecoil - or T-coil - found in most hearing aids. Einhorn says it makes a big difference.

UNIDENTIFIED WOMAN: (Using loop system) Take the one train to 14th Street. Get off and get the L train to Becker; that's heading towards Brooklyn.

HAMIILTON: T-coil technology is also available in some theaters. Einhorn says the first time he tried it was during a performance of the musical "Wicked." He says he'd tried using his hearing aids at other musical performances, but the result had been painfully bad.

EINHORN: So basically, I was expecting to have a miserable time and instead, I was absolutely enthralled. I had a wonderful time. I loved the musical. It was simply the first time in over a year that I'd been able to enjoy a live, musical performance, and I was reduced to tears.

HAMIILTON: Kristin Roush, an audiologist at Gallaudet, says T-coils can also help with cellphone calls - if you choose the right phone. Roush says the Federal Communications Commission requires cellphone makers to indicate whether a particular phone is compatible with hearing aids.

KRISTIN ROUSH: There's also a "T" rating, which stands for the telecoil rating, and that rating is 1 to 4. And the higher that number is, the more compatible that cellphone is with a hearing aid.

HAMIILTON: Roush says there's one thing technology can't overcome - people's reluctance to use hearing aids.

ROUSH: They associate it with, you know, getting older or the -being the first person in their cohort to get hearing aids, and it's something that they are concerned about. But hearing aids have gotten a lot smaller; they can do a lot more things. So I don't actually see that as much, anymore. I see a lot of people coming in now that are just really looking for, what's the best they can have.

HAMIILTON: The best doesn't come cheap, though. State-of-the-art hearing aids can cost $3,000 each.

Jon Hamilton, NPR News.

(SOUNDBITE OF MUSIC)

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