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AUDIE CORNISH, HOST:

From NPR News, this is ALL THINGS CONSIDERED. I'm Audie Cornish.

MELISSA BLOCK, HOST:

And I'm Melissa Block. We begin this hour with a search for the effects of sequestration, the across-the-board spending cuts that kicked in last month. Before the sequester began, there were dire and, at times, very specific predictions - job losses, furloughs and program cuts. Many of the warnings came from President Obama and his administration. NPR's Tamara Keith traveled to Columbus, Ohio, to see how the cuts are playing out there.

TAMARA KEITH, BYLINE: First, it's early still. Everything you hear today about the effects of the sequester could, and probably will, change over the coming weeks and months. But right now, in Ohio, if you're searching for signs of the sequester - real, tangible, quantifiable signs - they're hard to find. Don Scott Field, owned by the Ohio State University, is one of 149 airports nationwide set to lose its contract air traffic control towers.

Tower closures were supposed to begin yesterday at some airports, but the FAA postponed the cuts until June 15th. So for now, it's business as usual.

UNIDENTIFIED AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLER: Two five, one zero zero at six, runway niner left, we're touch and go.

KEITH: And in the interim, the university is fighting to persuade the FAA to keep its tower open every day from 7 a.m. to 11 p.m., as it is now. Jennifer Cowley is an associate dean at the College of Engineering, which runs the airport.

JENNIFER COWLEY: Our focus is on the legal effort, and ensuring that the FAA understands how important this air traffic control tower operation is.

KEITH: And then, as if on cue, a private jet lands as flight students taxi to take off for their day's lesson. Cowley says this is the fourth-busiest airport in Ohio.

COWLEY: We have medical helicopters that are transporting organs. We have our student pilots, corporate jets. We have a huge mix of aircraft types that are flying at different speeds and different skill levels.

KEITH: On campus, scientists are still trying to figure out exactly what the sequester will mean for them. Ohio State gets about $120 million a year in federal research grants. Based on everything she knows, Caroline Whitacre, Ohio State's vice president for research, projects a $13 million cut in the coming fiscal year. It's only an estimate at this point, but she says it's affecting morale.

CAROLINE WHITACRE: People are very fearful, especially knowing that this is for 10 years.

KEITH: Already, she's has seen a couple of grants come in with much lower than expected award amounts. Uncertainty was also in the air at a hotel on the north side of Columbus, where directors from the state's Head Start programs met last week.

BARBARA HAXTON: The truth is, this sort of thing has never happened to us before in the history of Head Start.

KEITH: Barbara Haxton is executive director of the Ohio Head Start Association. She says the federal Office of Head Start isn't out yet with details and final figures, but the most likely scenario involves shortening the school year or, simply, cutting kids.

HAXTON: The moms who have a 3-year-old in Head Start and who really, really treasure the experience aren't clear whether that 3-year-old, when he turns 4, will have a slot in the program.

KEITH: At the Defense Supply Center Columbus, furlough notices were printed and ready to go out to more than 7,000 civilian employees. At the last minute, Jim McClaugherty, the deputy commander, says they got a reprieve until maybe June.

JIM MCCLAUGHERTY: The day before the letters were to be given, you could see it on the face of some of the workforce, you know. I mean, there's true anxiety and just uncertainty in their minds.

KEITH: In preparing this story, NPR called a number of local program offices and state agencies in Ohio, and the answer was almost universally the same: We don't know yet. There are projections and predictions and estimates, but...

TIM KEEN: Until we get the specific information, it is hard for us to know what management actions might be necessary.

KEITH: Tim Keen is director of the Ohio Office of Budget and Management. He says what he's gotten so far, from federal agencies, hasn't been enough.

KEEN: We are waiting for technical guidance from the federal government agencies that indicates how much these reductions will be, to what grants; and at what time these reductions will take effect.

KEITH: Prominent economists are standing behind their forecasts that the sequester could shave half to three-quarters of a point from economic growth this year. And they say it likely won't show up until later. The sequester is proving not to be a cliff, but more of a slope. Politically, that means at least so far, there's not much pressure for Congress to undo or modify it.

Tamara Keith, NPR News.

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