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This is WEEKEND EDITION from NPR News. I'm Rachel Martin. As civilian casualties in Syria continue to rise, the U.S. and other allies have been grappling with how to respond to the crisis. This morning, the Obama administration announced that it's doubling its non-lethal assistance to the Syrian opposition. Secretary of State John Kerry unveiled the aid package at an 11-nation Friends of Syria meeting in Turkey. NPR's Peter Kenyon reports from Istanbul on this new U.S. support to Syrian rebels.

PETER KENYON, BYLINE: There is one thing the U.S., European and Arab states meeting here agree on - that with more than 70,000 killed and millions of people displaced, the Syria crisis, as Secretary of State John Kerry says, is horrific.

SECRETARY JOHN KERRY: The stakes in Syria couldn't be more clear: chemical weapons, the slaughter of people by ballistic missiles and other weapons of huge destruction, the potential of the whole country - a beautiful country with great people - being torn apart.

KENYON: Western governments are still investigating claims of chemical weapons use, but the Syrian opposition arrived at the meeting seeking interventions to neutralize Syria's chemical weapons and ballistic missile capabilities. They also want a no-fly zone and a lot more weapons. But many among the opposition's backers are wary of shipping arms to the fractious Syrian rebels, for fear that they'll end up in the hands of Islamist units like the al-Nusra Front that recently announced an alliance with al-Qaida. The nightmare scenario of a sectarian bloodbath led by al-Qaida-linked radicals was seized on by President Bashar al-Assad, who told state television last week that history shows that backing extremists for short-term gain often backfires.

PRESIDENT BASHAR AL-ASSAD: (Foreign language spoken)

KENYON: They financed al-Qaida in Afghanistan and paid for that later, he said, adding a threat sometimes heard in jihadist videos. Now, they support al-Qaida in Syria, and they will pay in Europe and the heart of the United States. The Syrian opposition says it condemns all forms of extremism, and opposition coalition head Moaz al-Khatib pledged that all Syrian minorities would be protected in a post-Assad Syria. He called on the Assad's allies to stop propping up what he called a murderous regime.

MOAZ AL-KHATIB: (Foreign language spoken)

KENYON: We want Iran to stop its activities, said Khatib, and I call on Hezbollah to withdraw all of its fighters from the field. In the end, the opposition didn't get the weapons or intervention it wants, and the West seems no closer to deciding the thorny question of whether to send arms. Analyst Andrew Tabler at the Washington Institute for Near East Policy says the dilemma is real, but delaying is also a kind of decision because arms from the Persian Gulf have already strengthened the al-Nusra Front and other Islamist units, increasing the prospects that they will have an important role in a post-Assad Syria.

ANDREW TABLER: This is a really big debate. You know, how do you influence a rapidly deteriorating situation if you don't deal with the reality of the fact that those who are taking the shots against Assad will be calling them when he's gone?

KENYON: The Friends of Syria, including the Arab states now sending weapons agreed to funnel all future military aid through the Free Syrian Army, which has tried to distance itself from the al-Nusra Front. Kerry also warned that other types of aid would be considered if cease-fire efforts remain stalled. But for the moment, as Syria spirals toward what U.N. officials call a humanitarian catastrophe, both the Syrian opposition and the international community remain divided on key issues, effectively leaving a bloody military stalemate to grind on. Peter Kenyon, NPR News, Istanbul.

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