STEVE INSKEEP, HOST:
On a Thursday it's MORNING EDITION from NPR News. I'm Steve Inskeep at Studio 31 here in Washington. Renee Montagne is back at our studios at NPR West in California. Renee, welcome back.
RENEE MONTAGNE, HOST:
Oh, it's really good to be back.
INSKEEP: And we should mention, you've been preparing for a journey to Afghanistan.
MONTAGNE: I have been. Next week I'll be going there. And it's worth noting that we are months - not years - months away from the U.S. stepping away from its leading role in Afghanistan. So this trip in particular, I'm going to be focusing on the next generation - those 20 and 30-something Afghans - who've lived their entire lives in times of war and occupation. And I'm going to be asking them what they think the future holds for them and for their country.
INSKEEP: Hmm. So we'll be listening for that. And we are also covering news here in Washington, where the Senate votes this week on a bill that makes it easier for states to collect tax money.
MONTAGNE: Specifically, the bill would let states get sales tax from online retailers. It's called the Marketplace Fairness Act - $23 billion in potential state revenues are at stake. Some states have been pushing this idea for years.
NPR's Yuki Noguchi reports on why it might actually pass this time.
YUKI NOGUCHI, BYLINE: The proposal to require online sellers to collect out-of-state sales tax has been kicked around for many years. For a decade, Amazon was a fierce opponent.
And Amazon had U.S. Supreme Court precedent on its side. In 1992, years before online retail took off, the high court said that out-of-state businesses do not need to collect and remit sales tax where they do not have a physical presence.
But much has changed.
For one thing, empty state and local government coffers have politicians hunting for new tax revenue.
And in retail, the old lines that divide online sellers from brick-and-mortar shops have blurred. Just about every shop, no matter its size, has an online presence. And conversely, Amazon itself has built a network of distribution centers around the country, meaning it has a physical presence in many states and must therefore collect sales tax.
The industry calls this convergence between online and offline sellers omnichannel shopping. Michael Kercheval is CEO of the International Council of Shopping Centers and a member of a coalition supporting the new tax bill. He says this change has transformed the cast of who supports this new tax.
MICHAEL KERCHEVAL: We have people now who say they never would have dreamed that they would've supported this, because they never would've dreamed how important omnichannel retailing is.
NOGUCHI: Amazon declined comment. But its public statements supporting the Marketplace Fairness Act point at another advantage. Because e-tailers with more than $1 million in out-of-state sales would have to collect and remit the tax, it will help Amazon by creating new taxes for its smaller online competitors.
BILL MCCLELLAN: For taxing purposes, they have more in common with a Wal-Mart.
NOGUCHI: That's Bill McClellan, vice president of government affairs for the Electronic Retailing Association. He and other opponents argue that the taxes will crush Internet startups. Without Amazon, the biggest company left fighting the bill is eBay - which is made up of many mom-and-pop sellers - and other smaller companies with fewer resources.
MCCLELLAN: There are 9,600 taxing jurisdictions in the country, and for a small remote retailer to go out and be responsible to collect and remit sales tax is an administrative nightmare.
NOGUCHI: Paying for and integrating software to collect taxes is a major concern for many small sellers. But some small business are in favor of the new tax.
Teresa Miller owns Treats-Unleashed, a chain of seven pet stores in the St. Louis area that also has a smaller online store.
TERESA MILLER: Right now it's completely inconsistent between how our stores operate versus how our online division operates. And we're looking for consistency.
NOGUCHI: In stores, she has to collect sales tax of 10 percent. Online she doesn't. And that's why Miller says she sees would-be buyers do what retailers call showrooming.
MILLER: We do certainly have people come in and take a look around - kind of touch and feel things and then they're obviously going to buy it online later.
NOGUCHI: She argues taxes should not be the factor that determines who wins. Online or offline retailers.
MILLER: I enjoy working with my community and our stores are very much a part of our community. I guess I'm just looking for a level playing field in terms of everyone having to collect the same type of sales tax so that I can really differentiate my products based on the price I can offer in the store and the service I can offer in my stores.
NOGUCHI: The bill is expected to pass in the Senate, but faces a tougher battle in the Republican-controlled House.
Yuki Noguchi, NPR News, Washington.
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