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From NPR News, this is ALL THINGS CONSIDERED. I'm Audie Cornish.

ROBERT SIEGEL, HOST:

And I'm Robert Siegel. President Obama says the use of chemical weapons by Syria would be a game changer, but U.S. evidence on that is preliminary.

PRESIDENT BARACK OBAMA: For the Syrian government to utilize chemical weapons on its people crosses a line that will change my calculus and how the United States approaches these issues.

SIEGEL: He discussed this today with Jordan's King Abdullah. Earlier in the week, the emir of Qatar was at the White House. That country has been arming Syrian rebels and the U.S. has tried to convince the emir to support only moderates, but that has not been easy, as NPR's Michele Kelemen reports.

MICHELE KELEMEN, BYLINE: The small but wealthy Gulf nation was already an important U.S. partner in the region when the Arab uprisings began, and Qatar saw a new opportunity to gain influence when Egypt's Hosni Mubarak was toppled, says Tamara Wittes, director of the Saban Center for Middle East Policy at the Brookings Institution.

TAMARA WITTES: One of the consequences of the fall of Mubarak is that the U.S. lost in a way its central diplomatic partner in the Arab world. And in many ways, the Qataris stepped up to play that role, in the Arab League for example, on Libya and then on Syria.

KELEMEN: And this was a time when the U.S. wanted others to take the lead. But there were risks in that approach, says Simon Henderson of the Washington Institute for Near East Policy.

SIMON HENDERSON: We stood to one side and let things happen in Libya, and the result was that most of the fighting was done by jihadis. In Syria, we're standing even further to one side, and the problem with jihadis persists.

KELEMEN: Henderson believes that's because Gulf states like Qatar are taking the lead in arming Syrian rebels. He says Qatar is competing with Saudi Arabia in this to gain influence in Syria's future, and they're backing different extremist groups.

HENDERSON: Qatar is punching above its weight at the moment and is prepared to have a pretty open competition in Syria.

KELEMEN: Qatar has also been pouring money into Egypt to help the Muslim Brotherhood government avoid a financial collapse. At a dinner hosted by the Brookings Institution, Martin Indyk asked Qatar's prime minister why his government seems to be supporting Islamists throughout the region.

MARTIN INDYK: Whether it's your bailing out of the Muslim Brotherhood government in Egypt or your support for the Muslim Brotherhood in Syria or Hamas in Gaza, there's the impression that you're taking sides, and I wonder if you could address that.

KELEMEN: Prime Minister Hamad bin Jassim bin Jaber Al Thani calls it a rumor spread by his rivals. And when it comes to Syria, he says Qatar didn't seek the limelight.

PRIME MINISTER HAMAD BIN JASSIM BIN JABER AL THANI: We did not want to take the lead. We begged a lot of countries to start to take the lead, and we will be in the back seat. But we find ourself in the front seat.

KELEMEN: He says Syrian President Bashar al-Assad is testing the international community and crossing red lines starting with Scud missile attacks on his people.

THANI: You know, we put a lot of red lines. Scud, he used Scud. Chemicals, he used chemicals. And there is evidence. But he used it in pockets, small pockets. He want to try your reaction. No reaction? He will escalate.

KELEMEN: And the longer the conflict drags on, the Qatari prime minister warns, the more the extremists will gain ground. But while Qatar is asking the Obama administration to do more, Wittes of the Brookings Institution says the White House has its own concerns about various funding streams for the Syrian opposition.

WITTES: There seems to be a tendency by different actors to back different factions on the ground in a way that exacerbates conflict between the elements of the Syrian opposition, when what the United States is very focused on right now is trying to bring that opposition together.

KELEMEN: That's the only way, she says, opponents of the Syrian government can show there's a real alternative to Assad. Michele Kelemen, NPR News, Washington.

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