SCOTT SIMON, HOST:
Ever since Egypt's revolution began, tensions among Egypt's Muslims and Christians have been escalating. Earlier this month, it once again turned deadly. Reprisal killings left three Muslims and at least six Christians dead. The religious violence is prompting a public debate about religious identity in Egypt.
One group of young Egyptians has an idea for trying to reduce tensions. They want to remove religious labels from national ID cards. NPR's Leila Fadel sent this report.
AALEM WASSEF: My name is Aalem Wassef. I'm a video artist and musician and also a publisher, and regarding my religion is none of your business.
LEILA FADEL, BYLINE: That's the name of his new campaign: It's none of your business. And Aalem Wassef, along with two other Egyptians, is calling on others to cover up their religion on their national ID card and start identifying as human first. They're spreading the word on Facebook, Twitter, and this YouTube video.
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FADEL: If these images of a particularly bloody day for Christians last year when the military in power at the time drove over Christian protesters and state television called on honorable Muslims to come out and defend the troops from the Christians - 27 people were dead by the end of that day - the lyrics sung to these images are just as chilling.
The racist republic of Egypt, the sectarian republic of Egypt, it's engrained on your ID and this is where the trouble starts. Again, Aalem Wassef.
WASSEF: Egypt has a long history of sectarian violence and sectarian issues which have always been covered up with this narrative of, you know, unity and - so it's a big lie actually because there's a lot of embedded discrimination in society.
FADEL: For decades in Egypt, Christians haven't had the same access to education and job opportunities. They are about 10 percent of Egypt's population and are predominantly Coptic. They can't build churches without a presidential permit and some Islamists have blamed them publically for starting violent protests against Islamist president, Mohammed Morsi.
A fiery ultra-orthodox preacher who supports the Muslim Brotherhood said this about Christians:
SAFWAT EL HEGAZY: (Through Translator) I told the church, yes, you are our brothers in this nation, but there are red lines and our red line is the legitimacy of Dr. Morsi. Whoever sprays it with water, we will spray them with blood.
FADEL: His name is Safwat el Hegazy, and he sits on Egypt's National Human Rights Council. The president has distanced himself from language like this. He's issued permits for two new churches and during religious violence earlier this month, he called the top Coptic Christian leader and said that he takes attacks on the church personally.
Michael Wahid Hanna, an Egypt expert at the Century Foundation in New York, says he's seen an increase in religious-based violence.
MICHAEL WAHID HANNA: And I think what's different is that we have officials of the government now - not underground preachers, not opposition members, but formal members of the government - who engage in sectarian rhetoric and we've seen no effort or real response to rein that in.
FADEL: The lack of response, Hanna says, creates a permissive atmosphere where religions discrimination can thrive. And as quickly as the religious violence breaks out, it is swept away. We visited the village of Khosous, just outside Cairo recently. Earlier this month, clashes began after young boys painted a Swastika on a Muslim institute.
In the melee, a Christian man shot a Muslim man, witnesses said. After that death, five Christians were killed in apparent retaliation. Another Muslim man later died of his wounds. But the city it is quiet again. A black banner hangs above the entrance to the city. It reads, Christians and Muslims are one hand.
And yet it's evident that religious tensions lie just under the surface. One ultra-orthodox Muslim lawyer tells us this was not a religious conflict. But in the next sentence he describes pig-rearing Christian thugs in a pejorative way, attacking Muslims and Christians on that violent day. Local Christians blame Muslims and often use just as inflammatory language.
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FADEL: Bolbol Khalil, a Christian juice shop owner on the street where the violence was the worst. He says Muslims came from outside Khosous and attacked Christians. He points to a nearby building. Merzam was killed there. Victor, a taxi driver, was killed there, and a man named Peter was soaked in gasoline and set on fire because he was Christian.
We never expected this here, he says. We celebrate weddings together, we mourn at funerals together. We are all brothers. Back in Cairo, Aalam Wassef pulls out his ID for me. In the space for religion, he's covered it with a piece of paper.
WASSEF: It says O positive, which is my blood type. I hope all the blood that was shed it's good to remind everyone that whatever your religion, whatever your origin, the color of your blood is just red like everyone else. And it's actually much more useful, especially in the context that we live in, to have your blood type written on your ID.
FADEL: Leila Fadel, NPR News, Cairo.
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