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From NPR News, this is ALL THINGS CONSIDERED. I'm Audie Cornish.

MELISSA BLOCK, HOST:

And I'm Melissa Block. The Los Angeles Unified School District has voted to end school suspensions for what it calls willful defiance. That's a catch-all term that can mean anything from mouthing off to wearing baggy pants. Willful defiance accounted for nearly half of the 700,000 suspensions handed down statewide last year.

NPR's Nathan Rott reports it's a change that many say is overdue.

NATHAN ROTT, BYLINE: It's three weeks until high school graduation and senior Joshua Ham is at home checking his grades.

JOSHUA HAM: Yeah, I got a C, B, B, B, A, B, A. Wow. I'm a scholar, you know.

ROTT: A scholar and occasionally...

HAM: Very active as far as talking in the classroom, you know, the class clown.

ROTT: It hasn't gotten him in much trouble lately - maturity, he says - but there was a time that it did and it resulted in a three-day suspension from his school in South L.A. His mother, Cecilia Blake, reacted like you'd expect.

CELIA BLAKE: I really wanted to put my foot up his rear end, but I had to control myself.

ROTT: Miss Blake, as she's called by her students, works for the Los Angeles Unified School District.

BLAKE: To me, suspension really doesn't work, because 99.9 of the time when they get suspended, guess where the parent is at? On the job. So they're at home watching TV anyway. So what are they learning? They're not learning anything.

MAISIE CHIN: the data actually shows that if you're just suspended once, you are at great likelihood for dropping out.

ROTT: Maisie Chin is with CADRE, a parent organizing group in South L.A.

CHIN: And because of that, you're three times more likely to become involved in the criminal justice system.

ROTT: Historically, schools in South L.A. have been primarily African-American. Today, Chin says, they're primarily Latino.

CHIN: But it didn't matter what the percentage of African-American students there were in a school, African-American students would make up, you know, well over half the suspensions, if not more.

ROTT: And it's not limited to South L.A. Nationwide, according to a study by the Civil Rights Project of UCLA, African-American students are three times more likely to be suspended than whites. English learners have a higher likelihood of suspension, too. Those findings have led to federal investigations in states ranging from Washington to Florida. Dan Losen co-authored that report.

DAN LOSEN: There's a real call for change because of the disparate impact on these subgroups.

ROTT: And you could hear that call outside of the L.A. school board meeting yesterday in downtown L.A. Hundreds of students gathered to testify about the problem of zero tolerance and to celebrate the end of willful defiance. Tona Enyendu(ph) was one of the rally leaders.

TONA ENYENDU: With a 5-2 vote. Now we will ensure we'll have more students in the classroom will increase graduation rates and will put more students on track to college instead of prisons.

ROTT: But some teachers and administrators aren't as happy about the change. The ban, they say, will make it harder for them to discipline their students. It's a tool lost, and they're not seeing any resources to replace it. But there are some places where the abandonment of willful defiance, regardless of resources, has worked out.

UNIDENTIFIED WOMAN: Five, six, seven, eight. One, two, three, four...

ROTT: Garfield High School is in East L.A., a low-income neighborhood that's predominantly Latino.

JOSE HUERTA: All right. Give me five. Awesome.

ROTT: Jose Huerta is the principal at Garfield and while he's all high-fives and hellos on the playground, his tone changes when it comes to discipline.

HUERTA: Suspensions are off the table at Garfield High School. I can't teach a kid if he's not in school.

ROTT: And he means it. Prior to that change, hundreds of students were suspended every year. In the last few years, just one. The result...

HUERTA: Our attendance rates are high. We're in the 96th percentile, our graduation rate is higher than the district rates. We just got word a few weeks ago that 27 of our students were accepted to UCLA. That's the highest of any high school in California.

ROTT: But it's possible he'll soon have competition. A bill that would restrict the use of willful defiance statewide was introduced in the California Legislature earlier this year. Nathan Rott, NPR News.

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