ROBERT SIEGEL, HOST:
From NPR News, this is ALL THINGS CONSIDERED. I'm Robert Siegel.
MELISSA BLOCK, HOST:
And I'm Melissa Block.
Pope Francis has gone on the offensive in recent days. His target: the global financial system and what he called cult of money that cares little for the poor. The comments are just the latest from a pope who has focused much of his attention so far on the world's downtrodden.
As NPR's Sylvia Poggioli reports, Francis's rhetoric contains echoes of an activist movement that had been repressed by earlier popes.
(SOUNDBITE OF A CROWD)
SYLVIA POGGIOLI, BYLINE: The crowds in St Peter's square shout his name in every imaginable language. Women hold out their babies to be kissed, everyone wants to touch him. Vatican security guards are at a loss as Pope Francis gets off his popemobile to shake hands, to hug and to be hugged.
Church historian Alberto Melloni.
ALBERTO MELLONI: Bergoglio wants to be the priest that every body wants to have in his parish, as confessor and as spiritual director. And what we have seen in these few weeks is the starting of a pastoral papacy.
POGGIOLI: Francis has shed some of the most pompous symbols of papal power; the ornate Renaissance vestments, the golden crucifix and red shoes dear to Benedict have been put away. And he has shunned the papal apartment. He still lives in a communal setting in a Vatican residence where he delivers daily homilies at early morning Mass.
Benedict's focus on theology has given way to more concrete issues. Francis' main concern is poverty.
MASSIMO FRANCO: He is a true global pope.
POGGIOLI: Vatican analyst Massimo Franco says that contrary to his predecessors, whose world views were shaped by 20th century European history, Francis is steeped in the global issues of today and of the future.
FRANCO: His focus on slums - mega-city slums - and his experience as Archbishop of Buenos Aires is very telling. Because naturally he is focusing on the poor of great cities, that is a non-state actor going to be a very powerful one in next dozen of years.
POGGIOLI: Francis' has long been deeply concerned by what he calls the negative aspects of globalization. On May first, Labor Day, the pope referred directly to the collapse of a garment factory in Bangladesh that killed more than a thousand people. He expressed anger at their $50 a-month wages. This, he said is slave labor.
POPE FRANCIS I: (Through Translator) And I think of so many people who are jobless, often due to a purely bottom line view of society, which seeks selfish profit without regard for social justice.
POGGIOLI: Such statements echo Liberation Theology, an activist Catholic movement that was very present in Latin American favelas in the '60s and '70s, and which was sharply disciplined by John Paul the Second for its Marxist overtones.
Church historian Melloni says there were various schools of thought in Liberation Theology, and the Argentine cardinal embraced the least political.
MELLONI: For Bergoglio, social justice is not a sort of service of the church - an external relations department oriented to those who are victims of injustice - but it is part of the very essence of the church.
POGGIOLI: One of the pope's first acts was to unblock the beatification process of murdered El Salvador Archbishop Oscar Romero, a martyr in Latin America. The process had languished under the two previous popes.
The prominent Liberation Theologian Leonardo Boff, silenced by Pope John Paul, hails the Argentine pope as the harbinger of a new spring for the global church. Vatican analysts are watching to see whether the change in style will be followed by a change in substance.
Francis inherited a church filled with problems and scandals, from the decline in the number of priests to clerical sex abuse scandals and corruption within the Vatican. One of his first actions has been widely welcomed, the appointment of a commission of cardinals - all but one from outside the Vatican - who will assist the pope in governing the church.
This is seen as the first implementation of collegiality, first put forth in the Second Vatican Council 50 years ago, that called for greater representation of the Catholic faithful in church governance.
Sylvia Poggioli, NPR News, Rome.