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Later today, President Obama is expected to formally nominate Jim Comey to be the next FBI director. Comey is a registered Republican and a longtime federal prosecutor. But he's best known for raising alarms inside the Bush White House about an electronic surveillance program. And that's an issue with resonance, after disclosures about this administration's dragnet collection of American phone records.
NPR's Carrie Johnson reports.
CARRIE JOHNSON, BYLINE: Jim Comey's famous standoff with the Bush administration over the legality of a secret surveillance program cemented his reputation as a person who stands up for what he believes. Comey fosters that impression in this video on the website of the hedge fund where he used to work as a lawyer.
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JIM COMEY: I actually give speeches about, wouldn't it be awesome if we could design a workplace where people actually speak truth to power and embrace the idea that they don't know stuff, where people have enough confidence to be humble?
JOHNSON: The key question now, for civil liberties groups worried about broad government surveillance, is exactly what Jim Comey OK'd during his time as President Bush's deputy attorney general, and what he thinks about the programs President Obama's been operating lately.
Michael German works on policy at the American Civil Liberties Union.
MICHAEL GERMAN: We want to make sure that Congress investigates the program that Mr. Comey opposed, but also what he approved, because that's really part of the problem, is that these programs were redesigned after that confrontation in some way that we still don't know.
JOHNSON: Comey's nomination and his upcoming confirmation hearings in the U.S. Senate could provide a rare opportunity for some answers. A bipartisan bill in the Senate would force some material from the secret Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court out into the open.
California Democrat Adam Schiff has introduced a similar bill in the House.
REPRESENTATIVE ADAM SCHIFF: But it's important, I think not only that the laws themselves are public, but that interpretations that can broadly impact what the government can do also be made public whenever possible.
JOHNSON: Schiff also floated the idea of requiring telecom companies to hang onto Americans' phone records for years, allowing the FBI and NSA to request specific information, rather than having the U.S. government keep all that material in a huge database as happens now.
SCHIFF: I think the public would have much more confidence in the privacy of that data if it was maintained by the companies rather than the government.
JOHNSON: It's not clear what Jim Comey thinks about that idea, but the man he's in line to replace - the current FBI director, Robert Mueller - told senators this week to be careful about tying investigators' hands when it comes to national security.
ROBERT MUELLER: There are going to be additional terrorist attacks. One of the most debilitating things for those of us in this particular - in our positions, is to try your darnedest to prevent it, but there be an attack, and then you are immediately attacked, for why didn't you do more?
JOHNSON: Mike German of the ACLU, himself a former FBI agent, points out that we're now almost 12 years past the 9/11 attacks. And some of the intrusive government surveillance in place since then isn't even effective.
GERMAN: Part of the problem with this type of blanket surveillance is that it's very hard to weed out the false positives.
JOHNSON: So far, few major obstacles have emerged to Comey's nomination. New Jersey's Republican Governor Chris Christie told a crowd last year that Comey has a disarming way with critics. Christie remembered a chat they had back during the Bush years, when they both worked at the Justice Department.
GOVERNOR CHRIS CHRISTIE: And I said you're a Republican working for George W. Bush and you're going to The New York Times editorial board? Do you have a death wish? And he said to me, Chris, it's much harder to hate up close.
CHRISTIE: And I will tell you, it's one of the smartest things anybody's ever told me about leadership.
JOHNSON: Jim Comey will find out if that's still true when he heads to the confirmation hearings in the U.S. Senate later this summer.
Carrie Johnson, NPR News, Washington.