LINDA WERTHEIMER, HOST:
To our series now on events 50 years ago that changed the course of the nation. In 1963, civil rights marches thrust Birmingham, Alabama into the national spotlight. But long before that, black families along one residential street were steadily chipping away at Jim Crow laws.
NPR's Debbie Elliott visited that street and sent this report. And a warning, it contains strong, offensive language.
DEBBIE ELLIOTT, BYLINE: In many ways, the story of modern Birmingham starts on Center Street - a leafy hill lined with neat brick ranch-style houses. In the 1940s, Center Street was the city's color line.
JEFF DREW: The west side was the white side and the east side was in transition.
ELLIOTT: Standing at the top of the hill, Jeff Drew remembers when the first black families tried to cross that divide.
DREW: If you wanted to get a house on the west side of Center Street, chances are you were going to have some resistance from white folks.
ELLIOTT: But Drew's family, and other up and coming black professionals moved to the west side of Center Street anyway, in a determined effort to take on one of the most segregated cities in America.
At first, Drew says, the Ku Klux Klan would burn the doors of the houses where African-Americans moved or fire shots in the dark of night.
DREW: In those big cathedral windows were what were being shot in all of the time.
ELLIOTT: And then dynamite. Drew says they knew a blast was coming when they heard decommissioned police cruisers burning rubber up Center Street.
DREW: Flying up the hill. They'd throw that bomb, and we used to marvel at how fast those guys could drive. Cowards. Right up this hill.
ELLIOTT: Those trips were so frequent that Center Street became known as Dynamite Hill - quite a distinction in a city that had its own notorious nickname - Bombingham.
HORACE HUNTLEY: Bombingham because of the many bombs that took place.
ELLIOTT: Birmingham historian Horace Huntley says white supremacists with the power of the government and police behind them were trying to intimidate civil rights pioneers.
HUNTLEY: There were 40-plus bombings that took place in Birmingham between the late '40s and the mid-'60s. Forty-some unsolved bombings.
ELLIOTT: A frequent target was NAACP attorney Arthur Shores and his family's home on Center Street. Shores, now deceased, took cases challenging Birmingham's segregated zoning ordinances and helped integrate the University of Alabama despite then-Governor George Wallace's vow to maintain segregation forever.
His daughter, Helen Shores Lee, now a Birmingham judge, remembers those days on Dynamite Hill.
HELEN SHORES LEE: Bullet shots through the window was frequent. We had a ritual we followed: you hit the floor and you crawled to safety. Bombing - our house was bombed twice. My mother found a third case of dynamite in her garden before it went off.
ELLIOTT: Lee and her sister Barbara Shores recount those turbulent days in their book, "The Gentle Giant of Dynamite Hill." Today, they are proud of their father's pioneering civil rights work. But as children, it took a toll.
LEE: We couldn't even walk the one block from home to school because of threats, constant threats that were made on our family. I couldn't walk home from high school with other kids - and that's all when you get to be 13 years old what you want to do is to walk home with your boyfriend, stop by the corner store to get ice cream or candy or what have you.
ELLIOTT: The way the girls were protected and taken everywhere by car made it difficult to cultivate friendships, she says.
LEE: It kind of made the other kids think that we were stuck up or privileged. Couldn't give out my telephone number. So, I just kind of resented that. I resented that a lot.
ELLIOTT: Lee was so resentful she left Birmingham for college and wouldn't return for decades. But her father understood the battle in Birmingham was winning the larger war. That's why the family remained on Center Street after the first bombing in August of 1963. During this oral history interview with the University of North Carolina in 1974, Arthur Shores describes the second bombing just two weeks after the first.
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ARTHUR SHORES: Just as I got up to go outside - if I'd been a moment or two earlier, the glass would have caught me full in the face, just as I got up to go outside. My front door was blown in. That time my wife was injured. She had retired. She had a concussion.
ELLIOTT: After one bombing, a riot erupted on Center Street. People were throwing rocks and bottles at the police who returned with gunfire. One man was shot and killed.
DREW: Terrorism's nothing new to us.
DREW: It's a new term. We were terrorized back in the '50s and '60s almost every day. How do you say - it was a commonplace.
ELLIOTT: Jeff Drew still lives in the Dynamite Hill house where he was raised an only child.
DREW: Son of John and Adene Drew, who were close friends of Martin King whom we called in this house Uncle Mike. Uncle Mike spent many, many, many nights here.
ELLIOTT: The strategic meetings for the Birmingham campaign continued, even as the violence escalated.
DREW: I was with my dad at one time where the Klan called him and said, well, Nigger Drew, we gone bomb your house tonight. And dad said, well, what you call me for? You can come on. Come on. Do it right now. You don't have to call me. Just come on. Hung the phone up. I mean, dad was courageous as were other people up here.
ELLIOTT: Drew says the families on Dynamite Hill knew they were advancing a righteous cause.
DREW: The civil rights movement was successful in making negro Americans a human being.
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ELLIOTT: Back outside, Jeff Drew stands in front of his house perched near the peak of Dynamite Hill. There's a long, tall, brick wall now covered with vine - a wall his parents erected to deflect the bullets and bombs. He hasn't torn it down.
DREW: This wall was built as a testament to our determination not to fold in the face of violence and terrorism.
ELLIOTT: Today, Drew is joining Birmingham's year-long commemoration of events 50 years ago and rededicating himself to the work begun by his parents and their neighbors on Dynamite Hill. Debbie Elliott, NPR News.
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WERTHEIMER: You're listening to WEEKEND EDITION from NPR News.
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