RENEE MONTAGNE, HOST:
And the saga of Edward Snowden continues to reverberate here in the U.S. It has reopened a debate about the power of the government to secretly reach into the personal lives of its citizens.
As NPR's Tom Bowman reports, both privacy advocates and security experts agree on one point: The laws governing electronic eavesdropping have not kept pace with technology.
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TOM BOWMAN, BYLINE: October 1975, Senator Frank Church of Idaho begins a hearing on abuses in the intelligence community. His focus is a shadowy agency that was picking up the communications of Americans, including Vietnam War protestors and civil rights leaders.
SENATOR FRANK CHURCH: This morning, the committee begins public hearings on the National Security Agency, or as it is more commonly known, the NSA.
BOWMAN: The NSA, Senator Church said, was violating the law by listening in on Americans' phone calls. What came out of his hearings were new intelligence oversight committees in Congress and a secret court that would have to issue warrants for NSA to do its foreign intelligence work.
Peter Fenn worked on the committee.
PETER FENN: Our concern at the time was the potential for NSA to be one big, huge vacuum cleaner.
BOWMAN: A vacuum cleaner that can snatch phone calls and telegrams, that might be used to target political enemies or stifle dissent. Fenn and other NSA critics say the spy agency's growing power has made that vacuum cleaner analogy seem quaint.
FENN: What we've seen since makes the vacuum cleaner look like a 1920s Hoover.
BOWMAN: What the NSA can do now is much more sophisticated and far-reaching than in the 1970s, back when it was grabbing paper copies of telegrams at Western Union or intercepting satellite communications with large microwave dishes.
James Bamford has written three books about NSA. He says the agency was able to throw out a larger net by tapping into cables as thin as a human hair which move phone calls, emails and faxes.
JAMES BAMFORD: These were fiber optic cables. You're able to squeeze tens of thousands of communications into a single cable.
BOWMAN: NSA is able to connect with those cables by getting secret court orders issued to American phone companies. All that information will eventually reside at a massive, new NSA facility in Utah. Matthew Aid wrote a book about NSA called "The Secret Sentry."
MATTHEW AID: The irony here is that the only living, breathing archive of every long-distance telephone call made by every American resides in the computer databases of the National Security Agency.
BOWMAN: It would have been technologically impossible for NSA to store and analyze all this information back in the 1970s. Officials call it telephone metadata. It includes the phone number, the numbers dialed, the date and time of the calls and their duration. But the program does not include names or content, and was approved by that secret federal court created after the Church Committee hearings.
Robert Litt is general counsel for the Office of the Director of National Intelligence. He explained the programs' importance at a recent Washington conference.
ROBERT LITT: We collect all the data, because if you want to find a needle in the haystack, you need to have the haystack, especially in the case of a terrorism-related emergency.
BOWMAN: If Americans are swept up in the net, says Litt, the information can only be used if there's evidence of a crime.
LITT: What we cannot do - and I'm repeating this - is go out and target the communications of Americans for collection without and individual court order.
BOWMAN: But the Bush administration was able to do just that without a court order. In the days after the 9/11 terrorist attacks, NSA collected data on email traffic, including messages to and from Americans. The leaked documents from NSA contractor Edward Snowden show that back then, the spy agency complained the secret federal court could not move quickly enough. Spy agency officials also worried that suspected terrorists can quickly change phone numbers before NSA gets a warrant.
Congress was told of the warrantless collection a few days after it started, and there were no court orders for the first two-and-a-half years. Amendments to the Patriot Act later allowed this collection of such bulk data. A number of lawmakers say there are enough safeguards to protect Americans' privacy. But Senator Mark Udall, a Colorado Democrat, says there has to be open debate.
SENATOR MARK UDALL: Frankly, I think we ought to reopen the Patriot Act and put some limits on the amount of data that the National Security Administration is collecting.
BOWMAN: Like the data that include Americans' long distance telephone records. The law allows NSA to collect what is termed business records. But can that term extend to credit card purchases, bank accounts, or even medical records? Twenty-six senators from both parties put that question in a letter last week to the Director of National Intelligence, James Clapper.
Peter Fenn, the former Church Committee staffer, says more needs to be done. He says the law he helped write more than three decades ago is obsolete.
FENN: You know, the word digital wasn't even in our vocabulary. So what we have seen is an unbelievably outdated piece of legislation that has not kept up with the technology.
BOWMAN: So Fenn has a solution: create another Church Committee, one for the 21st century. Tom Bowman, NPR News, Washington.
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