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With new momentum for same-sex marriage from the Supreme Court, gays and lesbians are hoping for progress in another sphere, the workplace. In more than half the country, it's still legal to fire someone because of their sexual orientation or gender identity. Tomorrow, Senate lawmakers will once again debate a bill that would change that.

NPR's Jennifer Ludden reports.

JENNIFER LUDDEN, BYLINE: In 2007, Amy Kraljev was head volleyball coach at a university in Louisiana. But soon after she started dating another woman...

AMY KRALJEV: I was called into my athletic director's office in the middle of the season and he had wanted me to listen to a recording of a voicemail that was left.

LUDDEN: The voicemail was from a sports program supporter and it complained about lesbian lovers being around the volleyball team. The director warned Kraljev to be careful. Then, at the end of the season, she was told to resign or be fired.

KRALJEV: I said is this because of my sexuality? And he goes, Well, I'm not going to talk about any of that. It's just the parents and the players don't respect you anymore. And we can't have you as the image of the coach.

REA CAREY: When you talk to people about, well, do you think LGBT people are protected in the workplace, a lot of people will say, well, of course they are. And they're wrong.

LUDDEN: Rea Carey heads the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force. She says the recent Supreme Court rulings point out a cruel irony. Same-sex couples will have more opportunity than ever to get married. But if they, say, put a photo of the wedding on their office desk, many risk getting fired.

CAREY: It is important to pass federal legislation because while we are making progress in some states, in some cities, that's not the case across the country.

LUDDEN: Carey says there's more support than ever for federal legislation in the Senate. But a bill to ban LGBT employment discrimination stands little chance of passing the House. In fact, it's failed to pass Congress, year after year, for two decades. Opponents argue it would violate the religious freedom of private business.

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LUDDEN: This video, by the Family Research Council, points to such an example in Canada, which has a similar law. A Christian aid group there hired only those who agreed to a moral code, including not to engage in homosexuality. An employee later declared herself lesbian and sued the group. In the video, Council president Tony Perkins says the entire workforce had to undergo sensitivity training.

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TONY PERKINS: Let's learn a lesson from Canada and say no to special rights based upon sexual behavior that threatens our basic freedoms.

LUDDEN: Without federal legislation, the U.S. has a patchwork of state and local laws, and individual company policies. This leaves more than half the country without legal protection. And surveys show large numbers of LGBT workers do report harassment or discrimination on the job.

GREG NEVINS: It really ranges from the very subtle to the not subtle at all. And some of the things that you see in these cases would really just shock the conscience.

LUDDEN: Greg Nevins, of Lambda Legal, has seen LGBT workers physically harassed, subjected to degrading verbal abuse or simply not hired. Courts have ruled that Title VII of the Civil Rights Act does not apply here, with one exception: transgender employees. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission weighed in last year, explains EEOC spokeswoman Justine Lisser.

JUSTINE LISSER: Mia Macy was a man who worked as a police detective who applied for a federal job in California, which is not where she was living.

LUDDEN: After a telephone interview, Macy says she was offered the job pending a background check. During that process, she asked that her files be updated, as she was transitioning to become a woman. The federal agency then revoked the offer and gave the job to someone else. Lisser says the EEOC deemed that unlawful gender stereotyping.

LISSER: They were willing to hire her when she fit their vision of what a man should be but they were not willing to hire her when she didn't fit their vision of what a woman should be.

LUDDEN: With just a few such rulings, though, the majority of LGBT workers are not protected. As with same-sex marriage, Rea Carey, of the National Task Force, sees a generational issue emerging.

CAREY: Young people are expecting fairness and they're expecting equality. Some of these young people are going to enter into the workplace and be astounded.

LUDDEN: With little likelihood of a federal law for now, states and localities will have to decide the issue on their own. Just last month, Delaware's governor signed a law banning discrimination based on gender identity.

Jennifer Ludden, NPR News, Washington.

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