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And I'm Renee Montagne. The amount of ocean set aside as nature preserve could double or triple in the coming days, depending on the outcome of a meeting in Germany. Representatives from 24 countries and the European Union are considering setting aside large portions of ocean around Antarctica as marine-protected areas. NPR's Richard Harris say the deal may hinge on preserving some fishing rights.
RICHARD HARRIS, BYLINE: There are two proposals on the table. One would set aside huge parts of the Southern Ocean around East Antarctica. The second proposal would focus on the Ross Sea, which is south of New Zealand. Ambassador Mike Moore, former Prime Minister of New Zealand, was talking up the joint U.S.-New Zealand proposal in Washington this spring.
AMBASSADOR MIKE MOORE: The total size of the marine protected area we are proposing is roughly three-and-a-half times the size of Texas. So to misquote the vice president of the United States, this is a big deal.
HARRIS: Jim Barnes heads a conservation umbrella group called the Antarctic and Southern Ocean Coalition. He says the Ross Sea area is one of the few relatively untouched areas left in the world's oceans, rich in wildlife.
JIM BARNES: Including the great whales, penguins, seals, albatrosses and so forth. And similarly, along the east Antarctic coast, it's another really great concentration of wildlife, charismatic wildlife, as well as all the smaller ones that the food chain depends on.
HARRIS: But because these two areas are in international waters, creating marine preserves will require consensus from 24 nations and the European Union, who are part of a pact known as CCAMLR. When they met to talk about this last fall, they couldn't reach agreement. Russia, China and Ukraine were concerned about losing fishing rights in these areas.
But they agreed to this extraordinary meeting in Germany to try again. Barnes says one possible compromise is to have the protected-area designation expire after a number of years. But conservation-minded countries don't like that idea.
BARNES: It's like creating a national park, and it shouldn't suddenly come to a halt. So that's one of the really contentious issues that remains to be resolved.
HARRIS: As it is, the proposal for the Ross Sea area has been revised to allow fishing in one part of the protected area, to satisfy nations that currently catch Antarctic toothfish. Karen Sack at the Pew Charitable Trusts says that's also a poor compromise, because it would be very difficult to know whether fishing vessels were obeying those rules in this remote region.
KAREN SACK: So we would hope that these countries would work together to recognize that for enforcement and for the integrity of the ecosystem, it's important to close the entire area completely.
HARRIS: It's one thing to create a park or preserve in an area that's not currently being exploited. But since there are established fisheries in this area, that raises the stakes considerably.
SACK: It's always difficult for countries to make a decision between short-term profits for industry and long-term benefits for the environment.
HARRIS: The oceans, as a whole, are under threat from overfishing, marine pollution, ocean acidification and other stresses. Marine preserves can help provide refuge for some species that are under pressure. So there's an international target to designate 10 percent of the oceans for conservation.
Right now, about 1 percent of the ocean is protected, due notably to President George W. Bush, who set aside large areas of U.S. territorial waters around Hawaii and the Mariana Islands. If all the areas under consideration now for protection around Antarctica gain protected status, marine preserves could cover 3 percent of the world's oceans and be a big step toward the 10 percent goal. Richard Harris, NPR News.
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