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MELISSA BLOCK, HOST:

Moving on now in our All Tech segment, to something we're moving beyond: landline telephones. Many people have ditched them for cable or wireless, so when old lines go down in storms, phone companies are questioning whether it's worth the cost of replacing them.

That's the case right now in several communities hit last year by Superstorm Sandy, as NPR's Dan Bobkoff reports.

DAN BOBKOFF, BYLINE: Fire Island is a long, narrow strip of land off the coast of Long Island. It's where Manhattanites summer to get away from it all. And last fall, it also happened to be right smack in the path of Sandy.

MARIO POSILLICO: We had damage to our beach. You know, every part of our infrastructure was damaged.

BOBKOFF: Mario Posillico is one of Fire Island's 300-or-so year-round residents. He's the village administrator of Saltaire. It's the kind of place that had just a single store until Sandy knocked it out of commission.

(SOUNDBITE OF FOOTSTEPS)

BOBKOFF: It was there Posillico met me on his bike traveling the newly rebuilt boardwalks.

They may had, you know, all been lifted, twisted. It was very much like a roller coaster - all these boardwalks.

The storm also destroyed much of the island's phones. Salt water and copper phone lines don't mix. But the island's only traditional phone company has no plans to replace them. Instead, Verizon is offering customers a little white box with an antenna it calls Voice Link.

Pat Briody has had a house on Fire Island for 40 years.

PAT BRIODY: It has all the problems of a cell phone system but none of the advantages.

BOBKOFF: Essentially, Voice Link connects home phones to the Verizon Wireless network on the island. It has a traditional-sounding dial tone and 911 service. But that's about it. You can't get Internet. Some businesses can't process credit card transactions. Many alarm systems and health monitors won't work with Voice Link. But Fire Island and a few other communities hit hard by Sandy have no other choice.

Steve Kunreuther of the Saltaire Yacht Club is not happy.

STEVE KUNREUTHER: I don't think there's anybody who will tell you Voice Link is better than the copper wiring.

(SOUNDBITE OF A RINGING PHONE)

TOM MAGUIRE: Maguire

BOBKOFF: Hi, Dan Bobkoff. Can you hear me OK?

MAGUIRE: I can hear you clear as a bell.

BOBKOFF: This is Tom Maguire. He's a senior vice president at Verizon. I reached him at his New Jersey home, where he happened to be using Voice Link himself.

So, are you using the same box right now that they're using on Fire Island?

MAGUIRE: Yes. The one I'm talking to you on? Yes, same exact thing.

BOBKOFF: I'll leave it up to you to decide whether that sounds as good as a landline.

MAGUIRE: I really take exception with the fact that some people think that Voice Link is an inferior product.

BOBKOFF: Besides, Maguire says, most calls on the island already come from cell phones.

MAGUIRE: The traditional landline business has been declining out on Fire Island, much as it has in the rest of the country.

BOBKOFF: And this is why what happens to a few Verizon customers on the East Coast matters to the rest of us. For nearly a century, the government has promoted universal access: the idea that anyone should be able to get a reliable home phone connection at a reasonable cost. But phone customers have been ditching traditional phone service. Some now get their home phone from the cable company. Others have gone completely wireless. Verizon has seen a 67 percent drop in the number of customers using copper landlines since 2000.

Harold Feld, with the consumer advocacy group Public Knowledge, says regulators have to decide whether universal access still matters.

HAROLD FELD: Or do we not care anymore? Now, is this something where the phone service of the future is going to be great where you can get it and great where you can afford it, but it's not going to be a public utility anymore. It's not going to be protected anymore, so you better hope you live some place where it works right.

BOBKOFF: Traditional phone companies like Verizon are still required to offer universal phone service in most places where they operate. Feld says their competitors, like cable companies, are not.

FELD: Verizon and AT&T have been saying, well, look, you know, it's not fair. We're no longer monopolies anymore. We can't subsidize the poor areas with the rich areas, so we want a change.

BOBKOFF: So, in a sense, Voice Link is a kind of compromise. It's the phone company saying, we'll give you a phone line but one that's cheaper for us to operate. Verizon says from now on, when a copper line has problems, if fiber optic lines aren't available, it's going to promote Voice Link as a customer's best option. Each customer that switches saves the company about $600 a year.

It's up to regulators to decide whether that's a fair trade and they're watching Fire Island as a test case. Both state regulators and the Federal Communications Commission are taking public comments on the matter. And they're getting an earful.

As I was leaving Fire Island, Connie Lawler saw my microphone. And when I told her I was doing a story on Voice Link, she was distraught over the loss of her copper wires.

CONNIE LAWLER: If you can help us, you will be our guardian angel.

BOBKOFF: Dan Bobkoff, NPR News, New York.

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