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And I'm Audie Cornish.
We have two stories now about how landowners interact with energy companies in the midst of the drilling boom. Many pipelines are planned to transport oil and gas around the country. One barrier is, of course, environmental opposition.
Mose Buchele, from member station KUT, has this story about another.
MOSE BUCHELE, BYLINE: At Margaret O'Keefe's farm in East Texas, they grow high quality Bermuda grass. The fields are flat and vibrant green, surrounded by woods of a darker, richer green. O'Keefe recently gave me a tour. With us in her car were her daughter, her neighbor and her dog Buster.
MARGARET O'KEEFE: Did he get in? Oh, my God. Well, the dog thinks he's human, what can I say? He's treated like a human, too.
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BUCHELE: The family loves this land. O'Keefe inherited it from her mother who divided it among eight children.
O'KEEFE: We fixing to get on my mother's 25 acres. She used to call it Enchanted Valley.
BUCHELE: But her Enchanted Valley also lies in the path of the Crosstex NGL Pipeline. That's a 130 mile underground pipeline to funnel natural gas liquids from Texas to processing plants in Louisiana. There, the component gasses like ethane and propane will be separated out and sold. The project is well under way. Crews are preparing to bore under her neighbor's field to bury the pipe underground.
O'KEEFE: Do you see that black pipe we're talking about? That goes the whole length of his towards the back. And that's what they're going to bore under that road.
BUCHELE: Laying pipeline is a scene that's playing out all over the country. As the drilling method known as fracking unleashes vast amounts of fossil fuel, pipeline companies are scrambling to bring it to refineries. The industry estimates the U.S. will need to add 2,000 miles of pipeline per year. And that's just natural gas - oil will need its own infrastructure.
That means a lot of pipeline going through a lot of private land. Usually companies cut a deal with landowners. But in a growing number of cases, the decisions are being made in a courtroom, not around the kitchen table.
DICK O'KEEFE: We, as small landowners, we can't afford to fight this pipeline company.
BUCHELE: Back at O'Keefe's kitchens table, her brother Dick explains how the family didn't like how they were being treated by representatives from the pipeline. So they said no deal to selling their land. The company's response...
O'KEEFE: They turned it over to the lawyers; got a nice fat packet in the mail that said we'll see you in court.
BUCHELE: Crosstex didn't respond to an interview request. But court records confirm the company did start legal proceedings against the O'Keefe's. In many states, companies have the right to use eminent domain. That refers to the power to have private land condemned, forcing the landowners to sell it. The process involves sometimes drawn-out court battles and not just in Texas but in many states.
WILLIAM CHRISTIAN: Yes, it's become a real boom industry for the legal profession.
BUCHELE: William Christian is an Austin-based lawyer who represents landowners.
CHRISTIAN: Pipelines are going up everywhere and that leads to a lot of condemnation cases.
BUCHELE: Don Santa is head of the Interstate Natural Gas Association of America. He says that is not great news for the industry.
DON SANTA: It is time consuming. It's resource consuming. But again, it has always been part of the process.
BUCHELE: So if landowners don't want lawsuits and companies aren't crazy about them, why do they happen? For one thing environmentalists who oppose fossil fuels fight the pipelines carrying them. And second, lawyer William Christian says the industry is changing, too.
CHRISTIAN: It seems to be a trend that a lot of landowners - who've owned land for a long time and negotiated these easements over a long period of time - in recent years have felt like the pipeline companies have gotten a lot more aggressive in the way they negotiate these easements.
U.S. oil production increased 30 percent in the last five years. Natural gas is booming. As long as that trend continues, Christian sees no end to these disputes. And back at the O'Keefe's farm in East Texas, litigation or at least the threat of it was enough to convince them to settle, says Dick O'Keefe.
O'KEEFE: But it was with the threat of going to court. They beat us over the head with a threat, to get us to settle up.
CHRISTIAN: He says the family simply didn't want the long legal headache.
BUCHELE: For NPR News, I'm Mose Buchele.