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It's been four years since tension over the president's health care agenda boiled over in town hall meetings across the country. The summer of 2009 marked the rise of the Tea Party movement and set in motion the GOP takeover of the House of Representatives the following year. And as NPR's Tamara Keith reports, this August, groups from across the political spectrum are hoping to recapture some of that energy again.
TAMARA KEITH, BYLINE: They call them town hall meetings, when members of Congress go back home to check in with the constituents and they used to be guaranteed snoozers. That is, until August of 2009.
UNIDENTIFIED GROUP: You work for us. Hear our voice. Hear our voice.
KEITH: This was an overflow crowd chanting outside of Congresswoman Kathy Castor's town hall meeting in early August 2009. Inside, it was just as chaotic as the Florida Democrats struggled to talk over chants and jeers.
UNIDENTIFIED WOMAN #1: We're not going to stand for the status quo anymore.
KEITH: In Michigan, Democrat John Dingell was confronted by a man who pushed his disabled son's wheelchair right up to the podium.
UNIDENTIFIED MAN #1: You are a fraud, and you're sentencing this person to death under the Obama plan.
KEITH: And at a meeting in Pennsylvania, then-Democratic Senator Arlen Specter was essentially told he was going to hell for supporting the president's health care plan. Clips from these events replayed on YouTube and cable news throughout the August recess. Mike Wagner is an assistant professor in the School of Journalism and Mass Communications at the University of Wisconsin. He says these shout fests...
MIKE WAGNER: ...really helped create the impression that the public en masse had reached a boiling point. You know, it was the case that a lot of people had reached a boiling point, especially members of the Tea Party, but there were plenty more people who were not enraged in the summer of 2009.
KEITH: But those people don't tend to show up at town hall meetings, says Wagner.
WAGNER: There's an incentive for people at these meetings to vilify their congressperson or the president when cameras are present because it increases the chances of getting covered, which can help shape the narrative about how the public feels about an issue.
KEITH: And shape it they did. Activists mostly targeted Democrats who supported the president's health care plan. Some of it was orchestrated by conservative organizers, but much of it was spontaneous and visceral. Ultimately, Congress did pass the Affordable Care Act without a single Republican vote. Castor, Dingell and Specter all voted yes. Specter was defeated the following year, as was the Democratic majority in the House.
BRAD WOODHOUSE: We kind of had our head handed to us in 2009.
KEITH: Brad Woodhouse is president of Americans United for Change, a Democratic group, and he remembers the town halls.
WOODHOUSE: I do believe that the energy that they developed, the - their ability to organize, I do believe contributed to Republicans' win in 2010.
KEITH: But this time it will be different, says Woodhouse.
WOODHOUSE: One thing that 2009 taught was we're not going to be surprised again. And, in fact, we think the surprise factor has been taken out of this.
KEITH: Woodhouse's group has a website that lists dozens of Republican town hall events and offers activists possible questions to ask at those meetings about the budget, immigration, gun control and Obamacare.
WOODHOUSE: We're fine if you see us coming, but, you know, get ready because we're coming.
KEITH: The Tea Party groups are back this August as well. But this time, in most cases, their targets are Republicans. Matt Kibbe, president of FreedomWorks, says his group has its own website for the recess. He says a lot of representatives are ducking by not having town halls or by keeping them on the down low.
MATT KIBBE: We're trying to crowd-source that information. We're asking citizens in the various congressional districts and states to call the offices and find out where the meetings are, post it back on our website so that everybody can have access to that.
KEITH: Health care is still the top issue on FreedomWorks' agenda. Crucial parts of the law are scheduled to be up and running this fall, meaning the time is now for one last stand. And the tea partiers are pressing Republican lawmakers to block any bill funding the federal government unless it also defunds Obamacare. Already, it's come up at a handful of town halls, like this one in Charlotte, North Carolina, on Monday.
UNIDENTIFIED MAN #2: And this is what the Tea Party wants to know: will you vote with Mike Lee to - and Meadows here, to defund Obamacare, yes or no?
KEITH: Congressman Robert Pittenger, a Republican, answered no. And let's just say that didn't go over real well.
UNIDENTIFIED WOMAN #2: We need to show the American people we stand for conservative values and that...
KEITH: It's not yet 2009, but it's also clear a lot of town halls this August won't be snoozers. Tamara Keith, NPR News.