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It was 10 years ago today that a sagging power line came into contact with an overgrown tree in Ohio, tripping circuit breakers and setting off the biggest black out in American history. Eight states and also a large part of Canada, 50 million people in all, were left without power for days...

We're going to hear what's changed in the decade since and whether it could happen again. NPR's Dan Bobkoff starts our coverage from New York.

DAN BOBKOFF, BYLINE: The lights went out on a sticky summer day, just before rush hour. A massive power outage has caused blackouts from New York City to Toronto.

UNIDENTIFIED WOMAN #1: There are streams of people who have been out here ever...

UNIDENTIFIED MAN: There's someone - a private citizen - who's directing traffic. And he was...

BOBKOFF: Walking around the Upper West Side, New York felt transformed with a flip of a switch. Strangers, who moments ago avoided eye contact, started chatting. They now had something in common. There was a mix of excitement and fear.

UNIDENTIFIED WOMAN #2: This is a terrorist act. They're talking about...

BOBKOFF: It wasn't, but it was disconcerting to see ordinary Toyota Camrys transform into stealth emergency vehicles. New Yorkers were trying to get home. No trains, so competition was fierce for buses and cabs.

UNIDENTIFIED MAN #2: Just get us to Washington Heights, man. I'll give you a lot of money for Washington Heights.

BOBKOFF: Meanwhile, Rick Gonzales was in the Albany control room of the New York Independent System Operator or NYISO. It's the air traffic control for state's grid.

RICK GONZALES: And, the lights in the control room dipped.

BOBKOFF: Not a good sign when you're in charge of the power. Soon, it looked like a scene from a movie.

GONZALES: There were hundreds of alarms going off. All the transmission lines that had tripped were flashing red.

BOBKOFF: Gonzales, who now heads the NYISO, says unlike a big storm like Sandy, his team had no time to prepare.

GONZALES: Absolutely no warning.

BOBKOFF: That night, when a chunk of the country was still dark, Terry Boston got a call. He was a vice president of the Tennessee Valley Authority, and was asked to be part of an official investigation of what happened.

GREENE: He says it came down to three things.

TERRY BOSTON: Tools, training and trees.

BOBKOFF: Beyond trees too close to power lines, the cascading blackout was fueled by failing computer systems, and poorly-trained operators who didn't talk to each other.

Today, hundreds of new sensors have been installed across the U.S. grid system. They're called Phasor Measurement Units. They can help investigators figure out what went wrong. But they also monitor in real time. Boston says if they had been widely used decade ago, there would have been an early warning.

BOSTON: There was about an hour of operator time that could have been used.

BOBKOFF: The power outage was also an industry wake up call. The voluntary standards utilities had been using were no longer good enough. So, Congress beefed up regulations, ultimately giving some teeth to an organization called the North American Electric Reliability Corporation, or NERC.

GERRY CAULEY: So, we have the authority to enforce penalties up to a million dollars per day.

BOBKOFF: NERC CEO Gerry Cauley says his organization has already punished utilities hundreds of times, including a Florida power company hit with a $25 million fine.

So, the tougher rules and new technology have many in the industry feeling good about preventing blackouts in the future. But Paul Hines at the University of Vermont is not so optimistic. He says the industry is looking backwards.

PAUL HINES: We've done some things that will reduce the risks of the blackouts that happened last time but haven't done things that would prevent the next blackout.

BOBKOFF: Yes, he says, we have those new sensors, but utilities don't totally understand what to do with all the data. Sure, trees are being trimmed and new regulations in place, but we still had a cascading blackout in the Southwest two years ago.

HINES: We haven't come up with the technology or policies that will prevent these things entirely.

BOBKOFF: But Hines says we could do more, like promoting something called distributed generation, basically that's creating your own power to rely less on the grid.

The Durst Organization does that in its 55-floor office tower in Midtown. It has a natural gas-powered generator running nonstop, producing two thirds of the building's energy. Spokesman Jordan Barowitz says it's more efficient and takes stress off the grid.

JORDAN BAROWITZ: When the grid is stressed on very, very hot days, anything you can do to lessen the amount of traffic on the grid is good for the entire system and avoids power loss.

BOBKOFF: But for the rest of us, the question for now is: what's reliable enough? The average American loses power less than two hours a year. Improving that even more could cost a lot of money - a cost that we would ultimately pay.

Dan Bobkoff, NPR News.

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