STEVE INSKEEP, HOST:
Five years ago yesterday, Lehman Brothers collapsed and the global financial crisis began. Today, President Obama marks the anniversary with a speech in the White House Rose Garden. The White House also just released a new report, assessing how the government's efforts to stabilize the economy.
NPR's Ari Shapiro has more.
ARI SHAPIRO, BYLINE: When the economy crashed, the government spent billions of dollars trying save financial markets, keep carmakers alive, and help people stay their homes. Looking back, the White House argues that every one of these investments.
GENE SPERLING: Performed better than virtually anyone at the time predicted.
SHAPIRO: That's economic advisor Gene Sperling, who spoke on a conference call about the report. He cited the Troubled Asset Relief Program as one example. He says the Congressional Budget Office predicted TARP would cost taxpayers $350 billion to save the major banks. Ultimately, Sperling says, the government put only $245 billion in. And that today, the banks have paid it all back and then some.
SPERLING: So in a sense taxpayers, rather than losing hundreds of billions of dollars, made a 28 billion profit.
SHAPIRO: Sperling offered comparable success stories about the AIG bank bailout, and the auto rescue - which, he noted, was controversial even within Obama's economic team.
SPERLING: I don't know that anybody at the time would have predicted, that by the first quarter of 2011, the big three would not only have survived but be profitable for the first time since 2004.
SHAPIRO: But there are less sunny ways to look at the recovery. Wages for a typical worker have barely increased. Unemployment has inched down, and is still at 7.3 percent. Only a third of Americans believe the economic system is more secure than it was five years ago, according to the Pew Research Center.
Hank Paulson was President George W. Bush's Treasury secretary during the crisis. He told NBC yesterday: Yes, things are slow.
HANK PAULSON: It is sluggish and so what we need to see is we need to see Democrats and Republicans coming together, to deal with some of the big structural reforms we need.
SHAPIRO: He mentioned immigration and overhauling the tax code. But right now Congress is just trying to avoid a government shutdown or a default on the nation's bills. President Obama told ABC this weekend, he will not negotiate on raising the debt ceiling.
PRESIDENT BARACK OBAMA: We've never had the situation in which a party said that, you know, unless we get our way 100 percent, then we're going to let the United States default.
SHAPIRO: So at least for now, major structural reforms will have to wait.
Ari Shapiro, NPR News, Washington.
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