If President Obama has his way, he will get to fill four of the 11 seats on the D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals. That's the second most powerful court in the country. So far, only one of his nominees has been confirmed by the full Senate. Today, the Senate Judiciary Committee approved another nominee for the D.C. Circuit.

But as NPR's Ailsa Chang reports, Republicans are signaling that they will try to block all three remaining nominations.

AILSA CHANG, BYLINE: When it comes to two of the last three nominees for the D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals, the most common complaint you will hear from Republicans actually has nothing to do with the qualifications or even the ideology of the individuals. Talk to Jeff Sessions of Alabama, Tom Coburn of Oklahoma, or Orrin Hatch from Utah, and they will say it just comes down to a cost-benefit analysis.

SENATOR JEFF SESSIONS: We do not need all three circuit judges. I'm not sure we need any.

SENATOR TOM COBURN: We got the D.C. Circuit that doesn't have enough to do.

SENATOR ORRIN HATCH: I'm voting against packing the court.

CHANG: "Packing the court" - Hatch and many other Republicans have been using the phrase to draw a parallel between President Obama and what the late President Franklin Delano Roosevelt threatened to do when the Supreme Court kept striking down his New Deal legislation.

SID SHAPIRO: It's not historically accurate. (Chuckling) Although it's a great phrase.

CHANG: Sid Shapiro teaches law at Wake Forest University. He says the reason the court-packing analogy doesn't work here is because FDR had wanted to add seats to the Supreme Court, while Obama is just trying to fill existing seats on the D.C. Circuit. It's actually what you get to do when you win a presidential election.

But Republicans know Obama can tilt a now evenly divided court towards Democratic appointees by filling the three vacancies on a court that's considered a top priority. Four of the nine justices on the Supreme Court once sat on this bench. Half of the D.C. Circuit's cases involve challenges to federal regulations, meaning environmental rules, labor policy and billions of dollars are at stake.

But Republican senators, like Chuck Grassley of Iowa, say these judges just don't have enough to do.

SENATOR CHUCK GRASSLEY: In terms of raw numbers, the D.C. Circuit has the lowest number of total appeals filed annually among all the circuit courts of appeal.

CHANG: So, Grassley's pushing legislation that would reduce the court from 11 seats to eight. He'd get rid of one seat entirely and give the other two seats to the appeals courts in New York and Georgia, which he says have bigger caseloads. Democrats note that Grassley happily voted to fill more than eight seats on the D.C. Circuit in the past, back when Republican presidents were at the helm. And critics argue Grassley isn't calculating caseload correctly.

Carl Tobias, of the University of Richmond law school, says there may be fewer cases before the D.C. Circuit, but they're way more labor-intensive.

CARL TOBIAS: Those administrative agency appeals can be exceedingly complex, with hundreds of parties and huge records that run to 50,000 pages. And they can take years to resolve.

CHANG: Judges across the country agree. Just this spring, the Judicial Conference, which is a representative body of federal judges, concluded the D.C. Circuit still needed all 11 judges for its caseload. Traditionally, the Senate defers to the conference's recommendations. And Democrats like Richard Blumenthal of Connecticut say if the Republicans are really determined to block these nominees, he'd support changing Senate rules to weaken their ability to filibuster. It's a threat known as the "nuclear option."

SENATOR RICHARD BLUMENTHAL: Drastic action is certainly appropriate if able and qualified nominees are blocked.

CHANG: But Republican Susan Collins of Maine has a warning for him.

SENATOR SUSAN COLLINS: It's incredibly shortsighted of Democrats who are proposing that, because if control of the Senate changes, they would be stuck with rules that disadvantage the minority party.

CHANG: And there's one thing both parties need to consider: Unlike appointees for the executive branch, judges have life tenure. So when you go nuclear for judicial nominees, any future retaliation against your party will be a lot more permanent.

Ailsa Chang, NPR News, the Capitol.

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