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Charlie Parker was one of the most influential musicians of the 20th century. In his brief life he created a new sound on the alto saxophone and spearheaded a revolution in harmony improvisation that pushed popular music from the swing era to bebop and modern jazz. Scholar and author Stanley Crouch has just published the first of a two-volume biography of Charlie Parker. Tom Vitale has more.

TOM VITALE, BYLINE: "Kansas City Lightning: The Rise and Times of Charlie Parker," tells the story of Parker's early years in Kansas City and his rise to prominence. But Stanley Couch says what he didn't want to tell was the same old story of young black musicians overcoming obstacles.

STANLEY CROUCH: These guys, they thought about life. Oh, yes, they thought about being colored, but they also thought about life. And people came to hear you because you played life. It wasn't because you played, oh, I'm just a poor colored man over here just doing some poor colored things, I'm thinking about my poor colored girl and how the white man is not going to let it blah, blah. That wasn't what they were playing.

VITALE: "Kansas City Lightening" opens with what they were playing, a triumphant moment in Parker's career. It's February 1942.

(SOUNDBITE OF MUSIC)

JAY MCSHANN ORCHESTRA: (Playing)

VITALE: The 21-year-old alto player is on the bandstand at Harlem's Savoy Ballroom performing with the Jay McShann Orchestra for a live radio broadcast. He steps up to solo...

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CHARLIE PARKER: (Playing)

CROUCH: And the band started throwing up stock rifts behind him. Parker sidestepped the familiar shapes, issuing his responses from deep in left field.

(SOUNDBITE OF MUSIC)

PARKER: (Playing)

CROUCH: Each chorus was getting hotter. It was clear from the position of his body and the sound of his horn his Charlie was not going to give in. All the nights he had worked on it, the flubs, the fumblings, the sore lips, mouth and tongue, of cramped fingers, they all paid off that afternoon. Suddenly the man in the headphones was signaling: McShann, don't stop, don't stop, keep on playing.

(SOUNDBITE OF MUSIC)

JAY MCSHANN ORCHESTRA: (Playing)

VITALE: Parker's sound grabbed Jay McShann the first time he heard it, the late pianist and bandleader told me in 1980.

JAY MCSHANN: One particular night I happened to be coming through the streets and I heard the sound coming out and this was a different sound, and so I went inside to see who was blowing. So I walked up to Charlie after he finished playing, I asked him, I said, say, man, I say, where are you from? I says I thought I had met most of the musicians around here. Well, he said I'm from Kansas City, but he says I've been gone for the last two or months. Been down to Ozarks woodshedding.

VITALE: All that woodshedding, practicing in isolation, running through every tune in every key, took Parker's playing to the next level. Parker told fellow alto player, Paul Desmond, in a 1954 radio interview that that was his goal from the beginning.

PARKER: I put quite a bit of study into the horn, that's true. In fact, the neighbors threatened to ask my mother to move once when we were living out West and they said I was driving them crazy with the horn. I used to put in at least 11 to 15 hours a day. I did that for over a period of three or four years.

(SOUNDBITE OF MUSIC)

JAY MCSHANN ORCHESTRA: (Playing)

VITALE: Parker was intense about everything, says biographer Stanley Crouch. When Crouch was doing his research, Parker's friend Bob Redcross told him that Parker had a deep intellectual curiosity.

CROUCH: They read history books, they went to museums. Redcross told me once, he said, yes, Charles and I, we would sit and we would discuss Sherlock Holmes or we would talk about history. We were always reading magazines, we were always doing stuff that people don't think that we did.

VITALE: But Charlie Parker did do a lot of what has become the stuff of often-told jazz stories. He'd dropped out of high school and picked up a heroin habit. He married his teenage sweetheart, then abandoned her and his child. He missed rehearsals and he didn't show up for gigs, so Jay McShann fired him in 1942.

MCSHANN: We told Bird to take a little vacation because we were in Detroit, and he got feeling pretty good there, you know. And so we says, why don't you take a little vacation, Bird, and just cool it. And so he did.

VITALE: Parker may have neglected his personal and professional relationships, but Stanley Crouch says Parker was never unfaithful to his music.

CROUCH: The thing to me that's most inspirational about Charlie Parker is that he felt that you could only redeem yourself for bad things by doing something that was beautiful. He felt that he'd give the world beautiful notes.

(SOUNDBITE OF MUSIC)

PARKER: (Playing)

VITALE: Stanley Crouch is writing a second volume of his biography of Charlie Parker, which will cover the saxophonist's New York career, the 1940s bebop revolution and Parker's death in 1955 at the age of 34. For NPR News, I'm Tom Vitale in New York.

(SOUNDBITE OF MUSIC)

SIMON: This is WEEKEND EDITION from NPR News. I'm Scott Simon.

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