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President Obama is putting former CEO Jeff Zients in charge of the tech surge. That's the administration's emergency effort to fix the health care website. But what about the contractors who built it? What's their responsibility?

NPR's Martin Kaste has this profile of CGI Federal, the IT company that handled the biggest piece of the project.

MARTIN KASTE, BYLINE: You may have never heard of CGI but in its hometown of Montreal, it's a big deal.

KARL MOORE: It's an IT outsourcing company that got started a number of years ago with a couple of guys from Quebec City who didn't even speak English.

KASTE: Karl Moore is a business professor at Montreal's McGill University, and he knows the company well.

MOORE: They've gone from those humble roots, moved to Montreal and then started to grow. And they grew a lot through acquisition.

KASTE: CGI is now Canada's biggest tech company and it sells IT services around the world. Moore says the company has a good reputation. But there have been some problems. Just last year, the province of Ontario fired CGI for failing to deliver a health care-related IT project on time.

Some in Washington now wonder whether CGI's American subsidiary, CGI Federal, deserves the blame for fumbling the Obamacare project. Sanjiv Augustine doesn't buy it.

SANJIV AUGUSTINE: I think it's grossly unfair. I think they're a victim of their circumstances.

KASTE: Augustine is president of LitheSpeed LLC, a training and software development company in Washington. He says federal rules require projects to be divvied up among too many contractors. In this case, 54 other companies besides CGI. The idea is to spread the wealth and avoid overcharging. But, he says, it's no way to build software.

AUGUSTINE: What folks attempt to do is to use the same model - Cold War model, if you will - to build a cruise missile and to develop a smaller software system. And it just doesn't work.

KASTE: He says software is best designed by small teams and unlike a cruise missile, the whole project does not need to be ready at the same time. It's easier to put up a Web portal in stages. That's what they did in Colorado. Cammie Blais is the CFO for that state's health insurance market system, which went online the same time the federal one did.

CAMMIE BLAIS: We knew that there would be some things that would be delayed in rolling out. There would be some enhancements - some, you know, customer decision tools - that we would actually not be able to do until after go-live.

KASTE: And Blais says there was only about eight contractors working on Colorado's system and one company was clearly in charge. That company was another subsidiary of CGI.

BLAIS: We trusted them to manage the other technology vendors that they were integrating and we worked in a close partnership with them.

KASTE: That's in contrast with the federal website, where no one contractor was in charge. CGI Federal would not give NPR an interview, but in an email, a spokesperson said CGI was not the lead contractor. In fact, he says, none of the companies was the lead and none was capable of testing the system end-to-end. That responsibility was left to the government. Martin Kaste, NPR News.

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