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RENEE MONTAGNE, HOST:

This week, we've been talking about the educational challenges facing adults. For millions of people, the biggest challenge is that they don't speak English. In this morning's story, Karvitha Cardoza - from member station WAMU - met some immigrants who hope learning English will help lift them out of poverty, and integrate them into American society.

KAVITHA CARDOZA, BYLINE: Ana Perez never made it to high school. Her education ended after the sixth grade, when war broke out in her native El Salvador. She says she's desperate to learn English, but when I meet her recently at Carlos Rosario International Public Charter School in Washington, D.C., she asks if she can speak to me in Spanish.

Why?

ANA PEREZ: I feeling nervous.

CARDOZA: You're nervous?

PEREZ: Yes because my English is - my grammatic is very difficult when I talking.

CARDOZA: Ana Perez has taken English classes off and on for almost 20 years. Now, she's trying to fill in the gaps of her education, even though she says it's challenging to juggle everything.

PEREZ: (Through translator) I have to study, I have a grandchild, I have a daughter, a husband. Everything adds up.

CARDOZA: Perez, like many of her classmates, struggles to balance learning English with jobs, child care and household responsibilities. Jorge Delgado, the assistant principal at Carlos Rosario, says many of his adult students make incredible sacrifices to come to class.

JORGE DELGADO: Lots of - cleaning until 7 o'clock in the morning; many of them are bartenders, parking attendants. The other day I was leaving an activity, and it was like, 3 o'clock in the morning. And when I went to pay, it was one of my students. And I'm like, don't you have a class at 8:30? And he said, yep. I said, what time do you get out? About 5.

CARDOZA: There are more than 20 million adults, mostly immigrants, who grew up speaking a language other than English at home, and who are still held back by their limited language skills. Heide Wrigley, with LiteracyWork International, says of those, only 3 to 5 percent are being served in English classes.

HEIDE WRIGLEY: Adult education is a bit of a stepchild, in terms of research and the resources available. And within that, the stepchild of the stepchild is really, adult second-language acquisition.

CARDOZA: There are long waiting lines for English classes in almost every state. Perez was lucky to get into Carlos Rosario, where there are 1,000 students hoping to get in.

(SOUNDBITE OF CLASSROOM CHATTER)

CARDOZA: At the Literacy Council of Montgomery County in Maryland, Carol Dymond is teaching an English conversation class. She has students from dozens of countries.

CAROL DYMOND: Do you have the sound zzzz in Korean?

HYUNOK HONG: J?

DYMOND: Zzz...

HONG: (Tries to pronounce Z) No.

(LAUGHTER)

DYMOND: No?

HONG: No.

DYMOND: You don't have that sound. OK.

CARDOZA: One of the students, Hyunok Hong, is struggling with the sound Z because there isn't an equivalent sound in her native Korean.

WRIGLEY: Why can't immigrants just learn English?

CARDOZA: Researcher Heide Wrigley says she's often asked this question. And she has to remind people how difficult it is to learn another language, and how long it takes.

WRIGLEY: It doesn't just require that you learn the grammar and the pronunciation. You need thousands of words. And you have to build what we call communicative competence that allows you to know not just what to say, but what to say to whom and when - and what not to say.

CARDOZA: But despite how difficult it is, many immigrants keep at it. When I ask Hong why she wants to learn English, she looks confused. The answer seems so obvious.

HONG: I live in America. I am American.

CARDOZA: Hong's dream is to learn enough English so she can go on a road trip by herself. One of her classmates says longingly, she'd love to make American friends. Another wants to help her child with homework. Researcher Heide Wrigley says immigrants being able to speak English is about more than just the language. It makes for a stronger, more integrated country.

WRIGLEY: It's really a way to support social cohesion, and to feel like you're part of that fabric of the wider U.S. community.

CARDOZA: For Hong and Perez, learning English gives them a chance at a better job, and a better future for their families. But there are thousands more waiting, and hoping, for their own shot at the American Dream. For NPR News, I'm Kavitha Cardoza.

(SOUNDBITE OF MUSIC)

MONTAGNE: Tomorrow on WEEKEND EDITION, a program in Washington state gets adults with limited skills through school and into careers. You're listening to MORNING EDITION, from NPR News.

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