STEVE INSKEEP, HOST:
We know a lot of people listen to this program on their morning commutes, which is why we have been running stories lately about how Americans are commuting. Millions of us are getting to work every day not on four wheels, but on two - on bikes. The rise in bicycle commuting has seen a big jump in the numbers of bike-sharing systems in the last few years. They've popped up everywhere, from Boston to Minnesota to New York City to Washington, D.C.
They are supposed to make commuting easier, greener and cheaper. But the people who arguably need the bikes the most are often the least likely to access them. NPR's Joel Rose reports.
JOEL ROSE, BYLINE: These bike-sharing systems have a lot of different names: Divvy, Hubway, Nice Ride. But they all work roughly the same way: You pick up a bike at one docking station, ride it, and then lock it up at another station. And these systems have something else in common: The users, so far, tend to be young, male, and wealthier than the rest of the population.
CAROLYN SAMPONARO: The rates of low-income ridership of all bike-share programs around the world is pitifully low. So we can only do better.
ROSE: That's Carolyn Samponaro, of Transportation Alternatives in New York, where the Citi Bike system launched earlier this year. We meet up at a docking station near a big public housing project in Brooklyn. It's right across the street from a busy bike lane, and about two blocks from the foot of the Manhattan Bridge - in other words, a prime spot for bike commuting. But the docking station just sits there, full of bikes, waiting for riders. Samponaro said this, unfortunately, fits with the data so far.
SAMPONARO: The demographic information I've seen to date is that it's more men than women. And only 0.5 percent are low-income New Yorkers.
ROSE: Point-five percent.
SAMPONARO: Yeah. It's a pretty poor rating.
ROSE: It's not fair to single out New York, here. Boston, Denver, Minneapolis-St. Paul - every bike-sharing system that's launched so far has had trouble attracting large numbers of low-income and minority riders. That may have something do with where the docking stations are located. But the people who run these systems say they're businesses, and they have to start where the demand for cycling is greatest. Paul DeMaio is a consultant who worked with Capital Bike Share in Washington, D.C.
PAUL DEMAIO: Systems are forced to go for the low-hanging fruit, the neighborhoods that have the highest density of commercial, of residential, and that are going to provide the most ridership to help pay for the service; and then hopefully, catch up with the outlying neighborhoods as quickly as they can.
ROSE: But it's more than just location. Even when these stations are sited in low-income neighborhoods, they often go underused. Partly, this may be about price. A typical bike-sharing membership costs somewhere between 60 and $100 a year. Many of these systems offer discounts for low-income riders, but they're not always well-known or advertised. Lavora Peoples lives in a lower-income section of Washington, D.C., called Anacostia.
LAVORA PEOPLES: I don't understand why they even put those bikes there because a lot of people - not going to ride those bikes.
ROSE: There are several bike-sharing stations here. But resident Diego Belton said not a lot people are using them. In part, he says, that's because a lot of residents don't have some of the basic things you need in order to rent the bikes.
DIEGO BELTON: Downtown D.C., that's more where the people have, like, credit cards. You know, you need a credit card or some type of payment plan like that, to even use these bikes. And young people around here, like in Southeast, they don't got no credit cards.
ROSE: People without credit or debit cards are known in wonk-speak as the unbanked, and they've been a big challenge for bike-sharing systems across the country. That's according to Michael Carney, who studied these systems as a grad student at the University of Illinois, at Chicago.
MICHAEL CARNEY: I get the sense that the unbanked issue hasn't been a top priority for most of the bike-share programs. Most of them are very new, and they're just trying to get off the ground, really. All the ones that I have talked to have been conducting some sort of public outreach to lower-income communities, though.
ROSE: New York's Department of Transportation has held more than two dozen public meetings aimed at introducing Citi Bike to low-income New Yorkers, and it's given away more than 100,000 free helmets. DOT planning director Jon Orcutt says the city is thinking about ways to serve the unbanked better.
JON ORCUTT: You know, it's a young, evolving industry. And coming down the road, maybe there's a way to pay by cellphone and link it to a cellphone account, rather than a credit card account.
ROSE: But first, Orcutt said, they're struggling just to keep up with huge demand for bike-sharing in much of Brooklyn and Manhattan. Still, Carolyn Samponaro - at Transportation Alternatives - urges the city not to put off planning for low-income riders.
SAMPONARO: The thing that I hear most from New Yorkers that are trying biking for the first time through bike-share is that, wow, this has made my commute so much easier. This has added some joy, some fitness to my day that I didn't usually get.
ROSE: Samponaro says those things shouldn't be luxury items.
Joel Rose, NPR News, New York.
NPR transcripts are created on a rush deadline by a contractor for NPR, and accuracy and availability may vary. This text may not be in its final form and may be updated or revised in the future. Please be aware that the authoritative record of NPR's programming is the audio.