AUDIE CORNISH, HOST:
It's ALL THINGS CONSIDERED from NPR News. I'm Audie Cornish.
ROBERT SIEGEL, HOST:
And I'm Robert Siegel.
Food labels have become a battleground. Just last week, voters in Washington narrowly defeated a measure that would have required labels to mention genetically modified ingredients. Supporters of the initiative, and of similar proposals in other states, say that consumers have a right to know what they're eating. In fact, there are lots of things we might want to know about our food.
NPR's Dan Charles looked into what could go on a label.
DAN CHARLES, BYLINE: I went to four different deep thinkers about food and I asked them, what would you most like to see on a food label? What's the most important thing to know about food if you're trying to be a health-conscious, responsible consumer?
I started with Jonathan Foley, director of the Institute on the Environment at the University of Minnesota. On Twitter, Foley is GlobalEcoGuy. Foley was reluctant to give an answer at first; simple labels can be misleading, he said. Finally, he said, OK, here are my top three.
JONATHAN FOLEY: First, deforestation, yes or no?
CHARLES: Did people cut down trees to grow this food? That's been happening in Indonesia and Malaysia to make room for palm oil plantations.
FOLEY: How much water did it take and from where, number two.
CHARLES: Farmers around the world have been draining rivers and underground aquifers to water their crops.
FOLEY: And number three, how much fertilizer was used and did you manage to keep it from running off?
CHARLES: Fertilizer runoff from farms has choked lakes and estuaries from China to the Chesapeake Bay.
But the state of our environment certainly isn't the only thing to think about with food.
TRACIE MCMILLAN: I just want to know that folks are getting paid a basic living wage.
CHARLES: This is writer Tracie McMillan. For her book, "The American Way of Eating," she went undercover and worked in the vegetable fields of California. There are field workers who don't even earn minimum wage, she says. Some get cheated out of their pay.
People have worried about this thing with imported food, she said, which led to Fair Trade coffee and bananas.
MCMILLAN: And the presumption was you didn't need something like that for the U.S., because we had labor laws that were enforced enough that anything made in the U.S. would have been produced under basic sort of labor conditions. And that's unfortunately no longer the case.
CHARLES: I heard something similar from Danielle Nierenberg, co-founder of the Food Tank - she calls it a food think tank. She'd love to see food get a grade based on how farm workers are treated or farm animals.
DANIELLE NIERENBERG: Something that really made it clear to consumers that this is a product, you know, where we did our best to make it fairly and justly and humanely.
CHARLES: It's important to keep it simple, she says. If a label is complicated, people just get confused.
NIERENBERG: People are so bombarded with information, particularly around food, that they don't know what to choose. And they don't really realize the impact of what they're eating will have on their personal health.
CHARLES: And that is exactly the problem that my last big thinker wants to solve. Michael Jacobson is the grand old man of food labels. He's executive director of the watchdog group Center for Science in the Public Interest.
MICHAEL JACOBSON: Twenty years ago, we led the effort to get nutrition facts labels on foods. And now they're there, everybody loves them. But they haven't had much impact on the American diet.
CHARLES: So Jacobson now says we don't need more fine print about sodium and sugar. We need something that grabs people's attention.
JACOBSON: A label that would spur them to choose healthier foods.
CHARLES: Jacobson wants to put some sort of symbol or a number right on the front of the package that gives food a grade. You'd give food credit for all the good stuff, vitamins and minerals. You'd take away points for trans fat, salt, saturated fat.
JACOBSON: And you come up with a red dot or the number 50, or whatever.
CHARLES: Jacobson says this label should just focus on whether foods are good for you. The other things - worker conditions, environmental impact - they may be interesting...
JACOBSON: But I don't think you can turn a food label into an encyclopedia.
CHARLES: Although with modern technology labels can be both small and encyclopedic. Jonathan Foley, GlobalEcoGuy, from the University of Minnesota, says his dream would be a bar code that you could scan with your Smartphone. You could get details about everything in that package - all the ingredients, where they were grown and how. Even if most people did not bother looking up that information, he says, it still would be powerful.
FOLEY: If companies had to think about all those details and really disclose them more, I think you'd see some pretty dramatic shifts in how they operate.
CHARLES: It could have effect everything our food touches: Forests, water, wages and health.
Dan Charles, NPR News.