The author Doris Lessing has died. Lessing won the 2007 Nobel Prize in literature for a life's work which included more than 50 books of fiction, nonfiction, poetry and memoir.

Her book "The Golden Notebook" has been called the first feminist novel, although not by the writer herself. Lessing died early this morning. She was 94 years old. Vicki Barker reports.

VICKI BARKER, BYLINE: In the course of a long and eventful life, Doris Lessing was a mother, a self-described house mother for a procession of starving artists, writers and political refugees, a refugee herself from bourgeois respectability in 1940s white Rhodesia, a campaigner against racism, a lover, an ardent communist...


DORIS LESSING: Come, puss. Move.

BARKER: ...and a serial rescuer of cats.


LESSING: She had a hard time in her previous home.

BARKER: But during an interview in Lessing's North London home one dark, cold day just shy of her 89th birthday, the writer briskly rejected the label most frequently attached to her: feminist icon, particularly when applied to her 1962 novel "The Golden Notebook."


LESSING: It's just stupid. I've seen it so often. I mean, there's nothing feminist about "The Golden Notebook." The second line is: As far as I can see, everything is cracking up. That is what "The Golden Notebook" is about.

BARKER: The novel follows Anna Wulf, a single mother and writer on the verge of a nervous breakdown in postwar London. Wulf keeps different-colored notebooks to chronicle her political, social, sexual and emotional selves. Only in the golden notebook of the novel's title would all these selves finally be integrated.


LESSING: (Reading) Anna meets her friend Molly in the summer of 1957 after a separation.

BARKER: The author read excerpts from the book for a commercial recording in 1984.


LESSING: (Reading) The point is, said Anna, as her friend came back from the telephone on the landing, the point is that as far as I can see, everything's cracking up.

BARKER: "The Golden Notebook" has been called one of the great and most complex novels of the 20th century, and Lessing, one of the century's most clear-eyed observers. Indeed, even in the science fiction which she considered her finest work, Lessing's characters live firmly within and are utterly the products of history.


LESSING: Well, my life certainly has been. First, it's been dominated by war, right from the start. I got married and I had children because of the Second World War, as all of us did, exclaiming, oh, no, we are never going to bring a child into this wicked world, but we had children by the dozen and got married.

BARKER: Lessing was raised by British parents in what was then called Rhodesia, now Zimbabwe. She left school at 13, left home at 15, married for the first time at 19. By the age of 30, Lessing had married again, become disenchanted with her second husband and his communist beliefs, and moved to London with their son.

While the novels tended to attack sweeping historical and social themes, Lessing could also work in miniature. In 1999, she read from an essay called "A Week in Heidelberg." In it, she trains her powers of observation on a blackbird. She had wooed it to her hotel windowsill with a piece of apple.


LESSING: (Reading) He knew I was there, or something was making him nervous, and he kept jabbing his beak hard into the apple flesh, then stopping to look at the white screen close to him. And then there was another series of quick, downward jabs. To shrink yourself down in imagination and see that gleaming weapon just above you, what a horror. The worm's eye view.

BARKER: For all of the honors showered upon Doris Lessing, the literary establishment seemed ambivalent about her.

BLAKE MORRISON: She was never a great stylist.

BARKER: Author and critic Blake Morrison.

MORRISON: What she was, was a great observer, a great joiner-in, really, engaging with the intellectual movements, the swirls and currents of the day.

BARKER: It is an assessment with which Lessing would likely have agreed.


LESSING: I have done quite a good job of documenting a lot of our time, I think. Some of my books are very good records. You know, looking at it objectively, I've written one or two good books.

BARKER: Lessing once refused to allow the Queen to declare her a dame of the British Empire, because, in the author's words, there is no British Empire. She called winning the Nobel Prize a disaster for her writing, but her friends say the money which came with the prize helped ease her final years, spent, by her own account, giving interviews and caring for her invalid son. For NPR News, I'm Vicki Barker in London.


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