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LINDA WERTHEIMER, HOST:

It's MORNING EDITION from NPR News. Good morning. I'm Linda Wertheimer.

DAVID GREENE, HOST:

And I'm David Greene. Israel began pumping natural gas from its first major offshore field earlier this year. The discovery of gas has increased hopes that Israel may also have significant reserves of oil. We have two reports this morning. In a moment, NPR's John Burnett tells us about a group that's divining oil by Bible verse. But first, NPR's Emily Harris explores whether Israel might someday achieve what's long been an elusive goal: energy self-sufficiency.

EMILY HARRIS, BYLINE: There's an old joke that if Moses had turned right when he led Jewish tribes out of Egypt, Israel might be where Saudi Arabia is today, and be rich from oil. Consultant Amit Mor of ECO-Energy says that joke is out of date.

AMIT MOR: Israel has more oil than Saudi Arabia. And it's not a joke.

HARRIS: It also might not be recoverable. The oil he's talking about is not yet liquid, but trapped in rocks not that far underground.

MOR: Maybe, if this technology will be proved technologically viable, Israel can meet all of its needs from domestic production of oil.

HARRIS: That is precisely the dream of Israel Energy Initiatives, an Israeli company backed by major American investors. Ralik Shafir is CEO.

RALIK SHAFIR: The motivation of our investors starts with the energy independence for Israel.

HARRIS: If that ever happens, it will take a while. Partly because of how you get the oil out.

SHAFIR: Our technology inserts heaters, electric heaters, through an eight inch pipe down below at 1,000 feet or so, and through a slow heating process that may take two to three years, it turns the organic part of the rock into gases and liquids.

HARRIS: Commercial production is at least a decade away. Not all hurdles are technical.

A windy perch in a nature park south of Jerusalem gives a good view of the spot a pilot project would go. It's next to farmland and a two-lane road. The road crosses a dry riverbed where David, in the biblical story, is said to have found the stone he used to kill the giant, Goliath.

(SOUNDBITE OF CROWD CHATTER)

HARRIS: Religious pilgrims visit here - on this day a busload of Christians from Africa and another from the U.S. Local resident Sigal Sprukt worries that an even a slow-paced oil industry would change the nature of this place.

SIGAL SPRUKT: The area is one of the last areas that are not ruined by cities. The history of the Jewish people is all around here.

HARRIS: She says the offshore gas discoveries in Israel have already changed people's sense of energy security.

SPRUKT: Right now, we don't need this oil. When we finish the gas, and you have the technology, a good technology, come back and do it here.

HARRIS: In theory, there is enough oil trapped in rock here to cover Israel's current oil consumption for centuries. Meanwhile, a much smaller field of conventional oil is ramping up production.

(SOUNDBITE OF MACHINERY)

HARRIS: Workers recently moved gigantic steel pipes in place for Givot Olam's sixth well. CEO Tovia Luskin expects to drill 40, plus build a pipeline to a refinery on the coast. He chose where to drill based on a passage from the Bible.

TOVIA LUSKIN: After the first well we had signs we could not walk away from. We had a liter of oil, then we had a few barrels of oil, then we had a bit more barrels of oil. Now we're in production.

HARRIS: But Luskin is facing local opposition too - Palestinian opposition. The land he's drilling is right up against the Israeli-built security barrier in and around the West Bank. Israeli officials don't want to discuss whether the field continues to the Palestinian side. Luskin says flatly it's Jewish land. Meanwhile, the Palestinian Authority says it is preparing tenders for oil exploration in the West Bank, a move that might provide it some sense of independence. Emily Harris, NPR News, Jerusalem.

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