MELISSA BLOCK, HOST:
Iran has agreed to an initial deal to freeze some of its nuclear program. The pact has been welcomed by many, but nuclear weapons aren't the only issues the U.S. has with Iran. Some hope to build on the recent talks and keep Iran engaged in diplomacy.
NPR's Michele Kelemen reports that there are others who remain skeptical.
MICHELE KELEMEN, BYLINE: Karim Sadjadpour of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace says there are a couple of ways to look at the negotiations with Iran.
KARIM SADJADPOUR: Greater nuclear cooperation with Tehran could bring about greater regional cooperation with Iran. But there's also the counter-argument that now that Iran's sense of economic urgency has decreased, the sanctions have decreased, Iran will have even less impetus to cooperate with the United States.
KELEMEN: Count Michael Rubin of the American Enterprise Institute in that latter camp.
MICHAEL RUBIN: It would be way too optimistic to assume that just because there's a diplomatic process on the nuclear issue that suddenly we may see a moderation of Iranian behavior on other issues. In fact, it's often times quite the opposite.
KELEMEN: Rubin is author of the forthcoming book, "Dancing with the Devil: A History of American Diplomacy with Rogue Regimes." He says U.S. diplomats tend to do whatever they can to preserve negotiations, even if it means looking the other way when their negotiating partner acts up.
RUBIN: We've seen this with North Korea. We've seen this with Moammar Gadhafi in Libya. We've certainly seen this with the Taliban, as well.
KELEMEN: When it comes to Iran, Rubin thinks the best strategy would be to keep up the pressure and not appear too desperate for a deal.
RUBIN: And even though we may loathe to do it, we have to convince the Iranians that if they don't play ball, we are going to walk away from the table and that they will have something worse to come.
KELEMEN: Obama administration officials are urging Congress not to vote on any new sanctions on Iran. And give negotiators room to see if they can turn an interim deal that rolls back parts of Iran's nuclear program into something more comprehensive.
Haleh Esfandiari, who directs the Middle East Program at the Wilson Center, thinks it is wise to stay focused.
HALEH ESFANDIARI: Neither side seems inclined to extend the nuclear negotiations to a serious discussion of other issues in the region.
KELEMEN: Human rights activists fear their issues will be ignored. But Esfandiari, who was jailed in Iran for several months in 2007, believes the U.S. will find some way to make its concerns known as nuclear talks continue.
ESFANDIARI: Make sure the Iranian know that human rights issues will be on the table, are on the table. And there is a concern in the United States, first of all, for those Iranian-Americans who are still in jail and, secondly, for political prisoners.
KELEMEN: She's also knows the limits of America's ability to change Iranian behavior. As Sadjadpour of the Carnegie Endowment points out, Iran's foreign minister and lead nuclear negotiator has a narrow mandate.
SADJADPOUR: Foreign Minister Zarif doesn't control a lot of the most important files, which America is concerned about; whether that is Iran's role in Syria, its role in Iraq, its support for Hezbollah. These are not files controlled by the Iranian Foreign Ministry but Iran's Revolutionary Guards.
KELEMEN: And the Wilson Center's Esfandiari says the Revolutionary Guards won't easily give up on their investments in the Syrian regime or in Hezbollah.
ESFANDIARI: There are the hard-line factions that remain highly suspicious, highly suspicious of the West, and if they're committed to the revolutionary principles of 35 years ago, standing up to America and also beside the hostility to the very existence of Israel.
KELEMEN: Successful nuclear negotiations could strengthen the hands of the pragmatists in Iran, Esfandiari says. But she adds it's way too early to tell.
Michele Kelemen, NPR News, Washington.
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