MELISSA BLOCK, HOST:
This is ALL THINGS CONSIDERED from NPR News. I'm Melissa Block.
AUDIE CORNISH, HOST:
And I'm Audie Cornish. This time of year, lots of Americans decorate their doors with a wreath and many don't come from the shop down the street, but from a catalog. In fact, millions of balsam fir wreaths are shipped across the U.S. each year in time for Christmas. This long-distance wreath business has made it a little easier for some sellers to break the law. Jennifer Mitchell from Maine Public Radio reports on tree poaching.
JENNIFER MITCHELL, BYLINE: It's hard to know what all goes on under the leafy canopy of the country's 747 million acres of forest. Deep in the woods of Maine right now, people are tipping.
WANDA PINKHAM: So this is the balsam, perfect color actually, green.
MITCHELL: And you just break tips, about 14 to 15 inches long?
Tipping is how wreath-makers like Wanda Pinkham get what they need to make and sell their own Christmas wreaths. Pinkham is part of a Christmas greens industry estimated to be worth tens of millions of dollars. But, like other cottage industries, no one's really counting. Anyone with a desire to, well, make a little green can take part on or under the table.
That's become a problem for some wood lot owners trying to protect their trees.
PINKHAM: Some folks will take the entire limb and that's what the land owners don't really like, to strip the tree. Just take the tips and then you'll have two grow back for every one.
MITCHELL: Pinkham has permission from a landowner to harvest her tips, but countless others don't bother to ask. From late October to mid-December, Maine forest rangers like Courtney Hammond are kept busy busting trespassers and confiscating ill-gotten greens every day.
COURTNEY HAMMOND: Over 1,400 pounds in one seizure. Many of our seizures run from 400 to 600 to 700 pounds, but at 40 or 45 cents a pound, people can make very good money at it.
MITCHELL: And they're damaging forests, he says, plucking limbs bald and even cutting down whole trees so they can sell a lot of tips at once to the area's big wreath makers. A hardworking person can make between $5,000 and $10,000 in a season of tipping. And in some rural areas, like eastern Maine, there really isn't much else in the way of winter employment.
This wreath-making facility will employ about 600 workers this season. As conveyor belts turn and forklifts zoom past, the smell is surprising for a factory. It's sweet and pristine, like a boreal forest.
DAVID WHITNEY: Can you put that on radio? That's the odor of balsam fir.
MITCHELL: David Whitney owns Whitney Wreaths, one of the biggest mail order balsam fir wreath companies in the U.S. Supplying retailers like L.L. Bean and QVC, he'll ship up to 12 tractor-trailer loads of wreaths each day during the Christmas season, and he'll buy tens of thousands of pounds of fir tips from hundreds of independent harvesters.
WHITNEY: Our tippers have to have a permit in order to sell to us.
MITCHELL: Whitney, who started out as a tipper himself, says illegal tipping is a problem that plagues the industry. But he says he's known most of his suppliers all his life and he knows exactly where his fir comes from. But forest officials like Courtney Hammond say not every retailer is likely to be so scrupulous.
And for every thousand pounds of poached greens they confiscate, several thousand are probably slipping past and could wind up almost anywhere, possibly even on a door near you. For NPR News, I'm Jennifer Mitchell.