Copyright ©2014 NPR. For personal, noncommercial use only. See Terms of Use. For other uses, prior permission required.

MELISSA BLOCK, HOST:

From NPR News, this is ALL THINGS CONSIDERED. I'm Melissa Block.

AUDIE CORNISH, HOST:

And I'm Audie Cornish.

Fifty years ago today, The Beatles first set foot America. That day is hailed as the beginning of Beatlemania by some, an event that changed the course of history by others. In reality, by the time they landed on this side of the Atlantic, The Beatles were already stars in Europe and number one on American radio. What's often overlooked is how many times The Beatles had failed to catch on in the U.S. before 1964. Paul Ingles has this reality check.

PAUL INGLES, BYLINE: Early February, 1963, a year before the Beatles arrived in New York for "The Ed Sullivan Show," Chicago DJ Dick Biondi spun a 45 from the small Vee-Jay label by a group whose name was misspelled, B-E-A-T-T-L-E-S.

(SOUNDBITE OF SONG, "PLEASE PLEASE ME")

THE BEATLES: (Singing) Last night I said these words to my girl.

DICK BIONDI: I didn't know what to think. Is this going to be a hit?

INGLES: At 83, Dick Biondi is still on the air at WLS-FM in Chicago.

BIONDI: I just played it and I liked it because they were good. And I got not a lot of good comment, but I didn't get any bad comment.

(SOUNDBITE OF SONG, "PLEASE PLEASE ME")

BEATLES: (Singing) Please please me, whoa, yeah, like I please you.

INGLES: Three months later, Biondi was fired and wound up at KRLA in Los Angeles. He played the record again there.

BIONDI: And the phones started ringing and the kids said, take that crap off and play the Beach Boys.

INGLES: "Please Please Me" was a flop. The follow-up single, "From Me To You," did a little better, but The Beatles' version stalled when American Del Shannon of "Runaway" fame recorded and released his own version.

(SOUNDBITE OF SONG, "FROM ME TO YOU")

DEL SHANNON: (Singing) If there's anything that you want, if there's anything I can do, just call on me and I'll send it along with love, from me to you.

INGLES: Before 1964, few British performers had made a dent on U.S. charts, so given a choice to play an unknown British band or an American hitmaker's version, it wasn't surprising that most DJs went with Shannon says Beatles historian Bruce Spizer.

BRUCE SPIZER: Back in the '60s, particularly the early '60s, we were by no means living in a global community, in that Britain was this far-off, exotic place across the pond. And initially, that probably worked against The Beatles in that, you know, it was considered foreign and nothing that we really need here.

INGLES: Across the pond, The Beatles had already cracked the top 10. But here, Capitol Records, the major label with rights to distribute The Beatles in the U.S., passed on their next disc, too.

(SOUNDBITE OF SONG, "SHE LOVES YOU")

BEATLES: (Singing) She loves you, yeah, yeah, yeah. She loves you, yeah, yeah, yeah. She loves you, yeah, yeah, yeah. Yeah.

INGLES: "She Loves You" wound up being released by the tiny Swan label out of Philadelphia in September, 1963. Bruce Spizer says the label tried to get Dick Clark to spin it. "American Bandstand" was broadcast nationally out of Philadelphia.

SPIZER: He went ahead and had the record on his rate-a-record segment. Normally, the records that did well would score in the 80s or 90s, but "She Loves You" scored in the low 70s.

INGLES: Another washout for The Beatles. The game changer for them came Halloween night 1963. The story goes that CBS variety show host Ed Sullivan just happened to be at London's airport when thousands of fans were awaiting The Beatles' return from a tour of Sweden. Sullivan biographer Jerry Bowles.

JERRY BOWLES: But he'd never heard of The Beatles. But instantly, he recognized that if they could get 3,000 screaming teenagers to show up at an airport in the middle of the night, they must be somebody.

INGLES: Five nights later, The Beatles got the attention of the international press by playing for an upper-crust British audience, including members of the royal family, at London's Prince of Wales Theatre for the Royal Command Performance.

JOHN LENNON: For our last number, I'd like to ask your help. Would the people in the cheaper seats clap your hands. And the rest of you, you could just rattle your jewelry.

INGLES: Beatle manager Brian Epstein headed for New York the next day, and soon inked a deal with Ed Sullivan.

(SOUNDBITE OF SONG, "TWIST AND SHOUT")

BEATLES: (Singing) Well, shake it up, baby, now. Shake it up, baby. Twist and shout. Twist and shout. Come on...

INGLES: Major American news magazines and TV networks also did stories on The Beatles after that Royal Command Performance. One aired on CBS the morning of November 22nd, 1963.

(SOUNDBITE OF CBS BROADCAST)

UNIDENTIFIED MAN: Yeah, yeah, yeah. Those are The Beatles, those are, and this is Beatleland, formerly known as Britain, where an epidemic called Beatlemania has seized the teenage population, especially female.

INGLES: It very well might have aired again that night, but then...

(SOUNDBITE OF CBS BROADCAST)

WALTER CRONKITE: From Dallas, Texas, the flash, apparently official, President Kennedy died at 1 p.m. Central Standard Time.

INGLES: CBS News anchor Walter Cronkite decided to sit on the Beatles story for three weeks while the country mourned the loss of JFK, appropriately, many would say. But by December 10th, Cronkite felt the country could use the diversion and re-aired the Beatles' piece. Fourteen-year-old Marsha Albert of Silver Spring, Maryland saw that broadcast and wrote WWDC radio requesting Beatles music. Deejay Carroll James arranged to have a copy of the British release of "I Want To Hold Your Hand" hand-carried from England.

(SOUNDBITE OF MUSIC, "I WANT TO HOLD YOUR HAND")

INGLES: He played it eight days before Christmas, 1963.

(SOUNDBITE OF MUSIC, "I WANT TO HOLD YOUR HAND")

BEATLES: (Singing) Oh yeah, I'll tell you something I think you'll understand. When I say that something, I want to hold your hand. I want to hold your hand. I want to hold your hand.

INGLES: The response in D.C., St. Louis and Chicago - where deejays got copies of the record from James - was so great that Capitol Records rush released the single the day after Christmas. Beatles historian Bruce Spizer calls that move brilliant.

SPIZER: Kids are not in school. And they listened to the radio in those days. There are no videogames. Kids that have Christmas and Hanukkah money and mommy and daddy can take them to the record store, and the next thing you know "I Want to Hold Your Hand" is a humongous hit in New York and other cities follow.

INGLES: Deejay Dick Biondi and many others since have said America used the Beatles exuberance to chase away the clouds of JFK's assassination. Since they weren't from here, it seemed OK for the boisterous Brits to put an end to the mourning period. The Beatles were suddenly all over the radio everywhere. Capitol Records dumped a then unprecedented $50,000 into promotion, creating perhaps the first artist street teams.

SPIZER: They were doing many very creative things, you know, posters and all sorts of things, giving away Be A Beatle Booster buttons, encouraging people to wear Beatle wigs. So they got very much into it and really created the concept of marketing directly to the consumer which, of course, is done all the time today, but at the time was revolutionary.

INGLES: Remember now, the Beatles' U.S. arrival is still more than a month away. With the buzz building, NBC's Jack Parr pulled a scoop on rival Ed Sullivan on January 3rd that almost derailed the Beatles express.

(SOUNDBITE OF NBC BROADCAST)

JACK PARR: The Beatles are an extraordinary act in England. I think they're the biggest thing in England in 25 years.

INGLES: Parr and Sullivan were fierce competitors. And Parr got Beatles performance footage from the BBC to air on his program ahead of Sullivan.

(SOUNDBITE OF NBC BROADCAST)

PARR: These guys have these crazy hairdos and when they wiggle their head and the hair goes, the girls go out of their minds.

SPIZER: Sullivan was absolutely livid and he contacted his European talent coordinator, Peter Prichard, and told him to cancel the Beatles. Fortunately, a day or two later, Sullivan realized that it would be a mistake to cancel the Beatles. And he called up Peter Prichard and cancelled the cancellation.

INGLES: And so The Beatles arrived on February 7th, and the story from there is burned into American consciousness.

(SOUNDBITE OF CBS BROADCAST)

ED SULLIVAN: Ladies and gentlemen, The Beatles.

INGLES: For NPR NEWS, I'm Paul Ingles.

(SOUNDBITE OF SONG, "ALL MY LOVING")

BEATLES: (Singing) Close your eyes and I'll kiss you. Tomorrow I'll miss you. Remember I'll always be true. And then while I'm away, I'll write home every day. And I'll send all my loving to you. I'll pretend that I'm kissing the lips I am missing and hope that my dreams will come true. And then while I'm away, I'll write home every day.

BLOCK: You're listening to ALL THINGS CONSIDERED.

Copyright © 2014 NPR. All rights reserved. No quotes from the materials contained herein may be used in any media without attribution to NPR. This transcript is provided for personal, noncommercial use only, pursuant to our Terms of Use. Any other use requires NPR's prior permission. Visit our permissions page for further information.

NPR transcripts are created on a rush deadline by a contractor for NPR, and accuracy and availability may vary. This text may not be in its final form and may be updated or revised in the future. Please be aware that the authoritative record of NPR's programming is the audio.

Comments

 

Please keep your community civil. All comments must follow the NPR.org Community rules and Terms of Use. NPR reserves the right to use the comments we receive, in whole or in part, and to use the commenter's name and location, in any medium. See also the Terms of Use, Privacy Policy and Community FAQ.