AUDIE CORNISH, HOST:
From NPR News, this is ALL THINGS CONSIDERED. I'm Audie Cornish.
The Ukrainian government says it's ready to make constitutional reforms to protect the rights of Russian speakers in eastern Ukraine. The move follows yesterday's agreement in Geneva, aimed at ending the occupation of government buildings by pro-Moscow militants. But today, those militants said they would maintain their positions until the Ukrainian government stepped down.
Amid the increasing tension in the east, one development attracted international attention. A group in the city of Donetsk distributed flyers ordering Jews to register with the militants. Even though nobody in Ukraine believed the leaflet was real, NPR's Ari Shapiro says it hit a nerve.
ARI SHAPIRO, BYLINE: When people left the Donetsk synagogue after evening prayers two nights ago, a group of masked men in camouflage showed up. Everyone says they were very polite as they distributed a stack of leaflets. The flyers said local Jews must come to occupied buildings with a passport, family history, a list of possessions and a $50 registration fee. That's a huge sum in these parts. According to the leaflet, the penalty for failing to register could be deportation, loss of citizenship and confiscation of assets.
YAGUDA KELLERMAN: (Through Translator) I didn't believe a word of it. You'd really have to be a fool to write anything like this.
SHAPIRO: This is Yaguda Kellerman, deputy chief of the Donetsk Jewish Community Center.
KELLERMAN: (Through Translator) You walk down the street with a beard and a yarmulke, and you never experience any problems here. I was born in Donetsk.
SHAPIRO: At first, everyone here more or less ignored the flyer but then, a few stories popped up about it in local media, and then it caught fire online. From a distance, the story didn't seem so hard to believe. These orders have echoes of the Holocaust. And when people in the West think of Jews in Eastern Europe, pogroms and massacres are often the first things that come to mind. This leaflet plays into people's worst fears about the present-day political unrest. Rabbi Alexander Dukhovny in Kiev leads Ukraine's progressive Jewish congregations.
RABBI ALEXANDER DUKHOVNY: I received so many letters from the United States of America, from the U.K., from European countries, even from Australia.
SHAPIRO: He says he received 200 messages in one day. Secretary of State John Kerry made sure the flyer got even more attention, saying this yesterday in Geneva.
SECRETARY JOHN KERRY: This is not just intolerable, it's grotesque. It is beyond unacceptable.
SHAPIRO: Of course, Kerry has a political interest in portraying the separatists as Nazis. And the separatists have been working for months to portray the other side as Nazis. Russian President Vladimir Putin often describes himself as a defender of the Jews. Vitaly Ivanov is a press attache for the rebels in Donetsk. We spoke to him in the occupied government building that is covered with signs saying anti-fascist.
VITALY IVANOV: (Through Translator) Excuse me, but when we are struggling against discrimination by the Ukrainian government, how can we discriminate against the rights of other minorities?
SHAPIRO: The rebels put out their own flyer, calling the accusations of anti-Semitism unbelievable. They urged people to call an emergency hotline if they see anyone distributing the leaflets. The Jews of Donetsk realize they have become pawns in a political game here. And the region's chief rabbi, Pinchas Vyshetsky, says that's unacceptable.
RABBI PINCHAS VYSHETSKY: What I ask all the political leaders in Ukraine: Leave us alone. We are not a political organization. We're a religious community, and the people that are coming to the synagogue, they didn't came to the synagogue to take part in a political meeting.
SHAPIRO: Rabbi Vyshetsky says this flier was intended solely as a provocation. And in a way, the fact that it's getting so much attention means the provocation worked. As for who made the leaflets, no one has been able to answer that question. One man at the synagogue said the authors should step forward and take some credit. In one afternoon, they created the most famous leaflet in the world. Ari Shapiro, NPR News, Donetsk.
NPR transcripts are created on a rush deadline by Verb8tm, Inc., an NPR contractor, and produced using a proprietary transcription process developed with NPR. This text may not be in its final form and may be updated or revised in the future. Accuracy and availability may vary. The authoritative record of NPR’s programming is the audio record.