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ROBERT SIEGEL, HOST:

From NPR News, this is ALL THINGS CONSIDERED. I'm Robert Siegel.

MELISSA BLOCK, HOST:

And I'm Melissa Block. Three states are holding primaries today, each one has different rules when it comes to voter identification at the polls. In Indiana, it has to be a government-issued photo ID. You can get by with a utility bill in Ohio. And in North Carolina, most voters don't need to show any ID until 2016. That's when a new law will require photo identification.

But as NPR's Pam Fessler found out, that law and many others face an uncertain future.

WENDY UNDERHILL, NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF STATE LEGISLATURES: OK. Here we have Florida, Georgia, Indiana...

PAM FESSLER, BYLINE: That's Wendy Underhill of the National Conference of State Legislatures who, when it comes to state voting laws, has an important job. She's the keeper of a frequently consulted list of ID requirements, a list that seems to change almost daily.

LEGISLATURES: ...Michigan, South Dakota, Tennessee...

FESSLER: Right now, she's ticking off the names of some of the states that required voters to show a photo ID back in 2012. There were 10 states then. This year, she says, there are 16, eight of which have what are called strict photo ID rules. That means without the credential, you basically can't vote.

LEGISLATURES: But one of those is Arkansas, and so in Arkansas we don't know whether that will be in place or not.

FESSLER: We don't know because Arkansas's law is one of several being challenged in the courts. Just last week, a state judge ruled twice that Arkansas's photo ID requirement is unconstitutional. Also last week, a federal judge struck down Wisconsin's photo ID requirement and a Pennsylvania judge refused to reconsider his decision striking down that state's law.

RICK HASEN: Things seemed to have changed.

FESSLER: Rick Hasen is an election law expert at the University of California, Irvine. He says after a period when courts were upholding state voter ID laws, some judges are now striking them down. He says it might be that the requirements have become stricter. It also...

HASEN: Might be that the judges are learning that these laws actually don't serve the anti-fraud purpose that they are advertised as serving.

FESSLER: In fact, in the Wisconsin decision, the judge found no evidence that there was voter impersonation fraud in the state, which was the main reason that lawmakers said a photo ID requirement was needed. The judge also said that the state's law would impose an unfair burden on black and Latino voters, because they're less likely to have the required ID. Katherine Culliton-Gonzalez is with Advancement Project, one of several groups challenging Wisconsin's law.

KATHERINE CULLITON-GONZALEZ: The tide is turning towards our favor, towards the favor of, you know, the voters. We've just seen so many people who are confused about whether they can vote, you know, trying very hard to get the right type of ID, looking at changing rules all the time, and elections that have just run amok.

FESSLER: She and other ID opponents say they're confident the Wisconsin decision will be upheld. But state's attorney general, J.B. Van Hollen, has vowed to appeal. And he says he's just as confident the judge will be overruled.

J.B. VAN HOLLEN: I thought the decision was very poor.

FESSLER: Van Hollen notes that other courts, including the U.S. Supreme Court, have upheld similar ID laws in other states. And even though the judge found no evidence of voter fraud, Van Hollen says he has no doubt such fraud exists. Especially since right now Wisconsin voters don't have to show a photo ID.

HOLLEN: It's so easy to vote as if you were someone else in Wisconsin that it makes it almost impossible to prove that people are voting and impersonating others when they're voting.

FESSLER: That debate is likely to continue in the courts and states for months, if not years. Although Wendy Underhill of the National Conference of State Legislatures says, at least right now, no new voter ID laws are in the works. Pam Fessler, NPR News.

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