Public Health

ROBERT SIEGEL, HOST:

From NPR News, this is ALL THINGS CONSIDERED. I'm Robert Siegel.

MELISSA BLOCK, HOST:

And I'm Melissa Block. Should the only known samples of the smallpox virus be destroyed? The World Health Organization will revisit that question later this month. It's been the subject of intense debate for decades, and as NPR's Rob Stein reports, it remains highly contentious.

ROB STEIN, BYLINE: Of all the awful diseases that have plagued humanity, smallpox is probably the scariest. Here's how a British newsreel described a 1962 outbreak in the city of Bradford.

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UNIDENTIFIED ANNOUNCER: Bradford faces a grim situation: The perilous smallpox lies over the city. No one can tell at this stage whether it will be checked.

STEIN: And there was good reason to be alarmed, according to D.A. Henderson, who led the world's fight to eradicate smallpox.

D.A. HENDERSON: Smallpox was clearly the most serious infectious that mankind has endured over history.

STEIN: By some estimates, smallpox killed more people than every other infectious disease combined and more than triple the number killed in every war in the 20th century.

HENDERSON: So it was a serious disease of major magnitude.

STEIN: The virus spreads easily from one person to the next. It hides in the body for about a week before erupting in a burning fever, convulsions, throbbing pain and terrible blisters all over the body.

HENDERSON: What is particularly disturbing to the patient certainly is that they're inside of the mouth and over the tongue. So he has trouble eating. And he has trouble drinking. It's probably the most horrible disease you can imagine.

STEIN: About one-third of victims die. Many survivors are left scarred and sometimes blind. Britain contained the 1962 Bradford outbreak by isolating patients and launching a mass vaccination campaign.

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UNIDENTIFIED ANNOUNCER: Clearly the peril is recognized by the majority of people. The spread of smallpox must be prevented.

STEIN: Worldwide, the campaign Henderson led eradicated smallpox in 1977, making smallpox the first and only human disease that's been completely eliminated.

HENDERSON: I think it gradually began to dawn on people that it really had happened, that this was real.

STEIN: But that doesn't mean the virus is gone. Scientists have kept vials of the germ locked up in two high-security labs, one in the United States, in Atlanta, at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; the other in Russia, at a government lab in Siberia.

HENDERSON: It's just in two places. We're reasonably confident of that.

STEIN: But for decades, the world has debated the fate of those stockpiles of smallpox virus, whether to destroy them and finally eliminate any chance smallpox would ever re-emerge. The United States and Russia have always resisted. Why? They said scientists needed the virus for important research. The question is now coming up again for debate, and once again both countries want more time.

INGER DAMON: We think that the stocks should be retained at this point in time.

STEIN: Inger Damon heads the CDC lab that has the virus.

DAMON: Were this disease to re-emerge, it would have significant, severe consequences both in terms of loss of human lives and severe disease.

STEIN: She says there's always the chance some terrorist or rogue nation has stolen a stash of smallpox or could brew some up using genetic engineering. So scientists need the virus to make a better vaccine, better tests to diagnose smallpox and drugs to treat people.

DAMON: We really have made considerable advances in all of these arenas. But there are additional needs. We aren't there yet.

STEIN: But Henderson and others say every independent panel that's looked at this question has concluded the world should get rid of the virus. There is an effective vaccine if it's ever needed, and scientists have learned everything they'll ever need to learn from keeping live samples of virus around.

HENDERSON: The question is, why are we keeping it? I don't see that there is a compelling reason to keep the virus and what we would use it for.

STEIN: And holding on to the virus is risky. There could be an accident, or someone could steal a few vials.

HENDERSON: As safe as a laboratory may be, there's always the risk that somehow or other there's going to be a possible escape. And if you don't have the virus, it just brings it, at least theoretically, to zero.

STEIN: And incinerating the last of the virus would make even a terrorist think twice.

HENDERSON: Any scientist, any laboratory, any country that after date X that has smallpox virus is guilty of crimes against humanity. The general feeling has been - is that this would serve as a deterrent of significance.

STEIN: But others scoff at that idea Peter Jahrling is at the National Institutes of Health. He says there's no way to know whether the Russians would even honor a pledge to get rid of their smallpox virus, let alone anyone else.

PETER JAHRLING: I think it's just a self-delusional act to think that by destroying the virus, you know, the world will be a safer place. I could say something snarky, and perhaps I will: If smallpox is outlawed, only outlaws will have smallpox.

STEIN: The World Health Assembly convenes May 19 in Geneva to once again debate whether to finally rid the planet of the last known strains of the smallpox virus. Rob Stein, NPR News.

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