AUDIE CORNISH, HOST:
For centuries, governments around the world have treated sexual violence as an unpreventable fact of war. Books from the Bible to "The Iliad" talk about rape and pillaging as an inevitable part of conflict. That attitude is beginning to change.
As evidence, take the global outrage when hundreds of Nigerian girls were recently kidnapped. Or you can look at a conference that began in London today, the biggest global meeting ever to address the problem.
NPR's Ari Shapiro has the story.
ARI SHAPIRO, BYLINE: A few years ago, Karen Naimer was in Congo when she saw something unusual - it was a mobile court that moves from one place to another bringing justice to remote villages. Naimer is with Physicians for Human Rights, where she directs the program on sexual violence in conflict zones.
KAREN NAIMER: So we were in this small town of Kahele, and 19 female survivors came. And they were waiting for their day in court.
SHAPIRO: Two militia members were on trial, accused of holding 400 women in the bush as sex slaves for a year. Women showed up with babies they had born in captivity. Naimer sat with the victims as they waited to testify.
NAIMER: And what was so striking to me as I spoke with them quietly was their deep desire to face their perpetrators and to demand justice.
SHAPIRO: Most people who've been sexually assaulted in war never get that opportunity. Susan Bissell is UNICEF's global chief of child protection.
SUSAN BISSELL: Very, very few perpetrators are held to task for the violent acts they commit. And it's really only in the last few years that the world is waking up to these things.
SHAPIRO: For a long time, people treated rape during conflict with a shrug saying it's just part of war. But now the U.N. has begun to document the problem to understand just how widespread it is. Last year, many countries signed on to a commitment to end sexual violence in conflict. And groups like Physicians for Human Rights are training local doctors in war zones how to take evidence of rape that can later be used in trials. Here's Bissell of UNICEF.
BISSELL: I think that part of the challenge here when we think about war is sort of, like, anything goes. Well, no, actually there are proper rules of engagement in the context of conflict. This does not fall within the category of acceptable behavior.
SHAPIRO: Researchers are also starting to study the issue more. And they've learned that sexual violence is not a universal fact of war.
Carol Cohn directs the Consortium on Gender, Security and Human Rights at UMass, Boston.
CAROL COHN: Now that we've been studying it, we see things such as conflicts in Eritrea, Sri Lanka, Guatemala or El Salvador, where one side uses sexual violence - in that case it would be the state military forces - and the insurgent groups on the other side don't use it at all.
SHAPIRO: Researchers have also learned that sexual violence in a conflict may not be just a military tactic. Sometimes troops do use it to terrorize and control a population. Other times, individuals act out amid chaos. As the U.S. military has discovered, people may even sexually assault their fellow service members.
The conference that started today in London is the first time so many people have gathered in one place to address these issues. There's a lot of excitement surrounding this meeting, and most everyone agrees it is overall a good thing. But some, including Professor Cohn, wonder how much will actually get accomplished.
COHN: If states chose to take sexual violence really seriously, they could develop international protocols that treat sexual violence in war, for example, the way we treat the use of chemical or biological weapons. That's something that is possible to do.
SHAPIRO: Possible, but nobody is expecting international agreements that ambitious to come out of this summit. Ari Shapiro, NPR News, London.
CORNISH: And we will have more ALL THINGS CONSIDERED right after this.
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