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And I'm Steve Inskeep. Let's try to get a clearer picture of who's really fighting in Iraq and what's really at stake. We know an extremist group called ISIS has seized many Iraqi cities. ISIS says it wants to found an Islamic state spreading across both Iraq and Syria, but the war in Iraq is not just about control of Iraq. It's seen as a fight for leadership of the global extremist movement. The head of ISIS is competing with Ayman al-Zawahri of al-Qaida. NPR's Dina Temple-Raston continues our reporting on the inner workings of ISIS.
DINA TEMPLE-RASTON, BYLINE: The dustup between al-Qaida leader Ayman al-Zawahri and ISIS's Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi broke out in the opened earlier this year. The fight was all about territory. Zawahri wanted al-Baghdadi to limit his operations to Iraq and leave Syria to other al-Qaida-affiliated groups. Al-Baghdadi refused, and al-Zawahri responded by publicly drumming the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria out of al-Qaida.
NELLY LAHOUD: The competition between ISIS and al-Zawahri has been brewing for years.
TEMPLE-RASTON: Nelly Lahoud is a professor at West Point and a member of the Combating Terrorism Center. She says the focus on the fighting between ISIS and forces loyal to Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki misses the point
LAHOUD: If you want to look at what is happening in Iraq at the moment, I think this is much more a battle between al-Baghdadi and al-Zawahri than it is between al-Baghdadi and Nouri al-Maliki. Al-Baghdadi wants to prove that his group lives up to its name and that it is not simply a name of a state without a territory but a real state with territory.
TEMPLE-RASTON: The next few weeks are critical for al-Baghdadi and the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria. Al-Baghdadi has said he wants to connect the territory ISIS holds in Iraq with areas under his control in Syria. If he manages to do that, it will be hard for other jihadi groups to ignore what he's accomplished. If they come out supporting him - and there have been some words of encouragement from al-Qaida's arm in Yemen - that would be an indication that ISIS has won the battle or at least won this round against the al-Qaida leader. And there are already signs that's happening, says Steven Cook of the Council on Foreign Relations.
STEVEN COOK: In many ways, Ayman al-Zawahri had already been collapsed by ISIS and Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi. They certainly have achieved things that al-Qaida had never been able to achieve, whether under Zawahri or Osama bin Laden.
TEMPLE-RASTON: Things like capturing territory in which to re-establish an Islamic caliphate, which ISIS says it plans to do.
COOK: Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi is demonstrating significant - both military skill, as well as political skill in outmaneuvering Zawahri.
TEMPLE-RASTON: So there's been a public split between al-Baghdadi and al-Zawahri, and the momentum is clearly with ISIS. Juan Zarate is a former White House national security official, now at the Center for Strategic and International Studies. And he says it's too early to write off al-Qaida.
JUAN ZARATE: I think there's a very real chance that you have a Balkanization of the environment. And you could have two global movements that seem to subscribe to the same agenda with different tactics, perhaps different leadership but at the end of the day, the same kind of threat to the United States, regardless of the banner under which they fly.
TEMPLE-RASTON: In other words, what might come out of this conflict is not one supreme movement or leader of a world terrorist organization but rather two of them. ISIS could become its own platform for a new, more brutal global terrorist movement. But what would make it different from al-Qaida and more dangerous is that it would be established in the heart of the Middle East, and it would have its own territory, resources and personnel. Dina Temple-Raston, NPR News.
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