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ROBERT SIEGEL, HOST:

That tragic accident in Lac-Megantic prompted scrutiny of oil trains here in the U.S. Regulators and railroads have made changes over the past year in response. But as NPR's Jeff Brady reports, some who live near places where oil trains travel are still worried.

JEFF BRADY, BYLINE: I'm just outside of Newark, Delaware, and a long oil train is just about to pass here. Trains like this one are a lot more common around the country these days. The number of oil tank cars pulled by the country's largest railroad has increased more than 14 times in just the last four years. With oil drill booms in places like North Dakota where pipeline capacity is limited, railroads are a preferred method of transporting crude oil to refineries. A few miles away, Amy Roe with the Delaware chapter of the Sierra Club is walking through a wooded area near her house.

AMY ROE: So if you look behind us, there's the children's playground and then directly in front of us - I don't know about a 100 feet - there are oil tank cars being stored.

BRADY: Roe wishes the country would move away from fossil fuels faster. That plays in her opposition to oil trains, but she's also concerned about safety, especially after the Lac-Megantic accident. She's heard the arguments from railroads and oil companies that the vast majority of rail shipments arrive at their destination safely.

ROE: And that is supposed to reassure us, but all it takes is one like what we saw in Lac-Megantic. All it takes is one of those here, and our lives will change forever.

BRADY: Fueling that fear is a series of accidents over the last year. Among them, a fiery crash in North Dakota that prompted the evacuation of a small town in December. In April, residents of Lynchburg, Virginia watched as a derailed oil train sent flames high into the air. Patricia Riley with the Association of American Railroads says her industry and regulators have made a series of changes designed to avoid accidents in the future.

PATRICIA RILEY: There's slower speeds. There's selective roots. There's increased track inspections. And this was not done a year ago, and so people have to realize that a lot has been done to step up the safe movement of Crude By Rail.

BRADY: Riley says there's also a push to train more local fire departments and other emergency officials so they know how to respond when an accident does happen. She says there are more changes to come.

RILEY: The one piece of the puzzle that's missing is higher tank car standards.

BRADY: One widely used tank car came, the DOT 111, came under scrutiny because they can be punctured during an accident. Canada already has mandated a three- year phase-out of these cars built before 2011. That's when some safety upgrades were made to the tank car design. In the U.S., many of those cars are owned by oil companies, not railroads. Rich Moskowitz is general counsel for the trade group American Fuel and Petrochemical Manufacturers. He says even before Lac-Megantic, his industry petitioned the department of transportation to require stronger tank cars.

RICH MOSKOWTIZ: Refineries have voluntarily ordered and taken delivery on those cars even though DOT still hasn't acted on the petition. In fact, by the end of 2014, refiners will have invested more than four and a half billion dollars in safer tank cars.

BRADY: Moskowitz says it will take time to phase out all the older tank cars and build new ones. Once that's done and with infrastructure improvement by the railroads, he argues moving oil by rail can be made even safer. Jeff Brady, NPR News.

SIEGEL: This is ALL THINGS CONSIDERED from NPR News.

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