SCOTT SIMON, HOST:
This is WEEKEND EDITION from NPR News. I'm Scott Simon. This week, both the United States and Europe announced new economic sanctions against Russia for its role in the conflict in Ukraine. Among other things, Western companies will no longer be able to sell Russia new technologies to develop its oil fields. This move comes at a time when oil exports have become more important than ever for the Russian economy. NPR's Jim Zarroli reports.
JIM ZARROLI, BYLINE: President Obama says the sanctions announced this week are meant to send a strong message.
PRESIDENT BARACK OBAMA: We've also made it clear, as I have many times, that if Russia continues on its current path, the cost on Russia will continue to grow. And today is a reminder that the United States means what it says.
ZARROLI: And targeting Russia's energy sector is one way the West is hoping to get its point across. It's hard to overestimate the importance of energy to Russia's economy. Three quarters of everything Russia exports are commodities, and most of that is oil and natural gas. But the sanctions imposed this week are limited. For one thing, European officials insisted that the sanctions not apply to natural gas exports. Steven Pifer is a senior fellow at the Brookings Institution and a former U.S. ambassador to Ukraine.
STEVE PIFER: Europe now gets probably 25 to 30 percent of the natural gas it uses from Russia, and the Europeans don't want to see that cut off.
ZARROLI: Nor will the sanctions affect oil production that's taking place now. Any impact the sanctions will have on the oil sector is very long-term. Russia now has vast oil supplies, exporting 10 million barrels a day. But over the next few decades, the reserves are expected to run dry. Again, Steven Pifer.
PIFER: As the Russians deplete their existing oil fields, they're looking offshore. They're looking up into the north in the Arctic area - the northern parts of Russia - and there's significant potential there. And so they want to bring fields up there online as they draw down and deplete existing fields.
ZARROLI: In this corporate video, the Russian oil company Rosnef boasts that hundreds of geological sites are being explored throughout Russia.
UNIDENTIFIED NARRATOR: Western and Eastern Siberia, south and central Russia, Far East and Arctic sea shells are major resources of oil and gas, not only for the company, but also for all of Russia.
ZARROLI: And yet, to tap these new fields, Russia depends on Western companies like BP, Halliburton, and Exxon Mobil - all of which are engaged in lucrative joint projects with Russian companies. David Goldwyn is a former State Department official who now heads an energy consulting firm.
DAVID GOLDWYN: Both the - the drilling technology, the special mod, the technology for fracturing those shells and bringing them back up - all that was invented by U.S. companies and U.S. technology.
ZARROLI: Goldwyn says Russia also needs help from U.S. companies to build drilling rigs in the Arctic.
GOLDWYN: So by barring the exports of technologies which are necessary for that production, we have, essentially, dramatically impeded the future of Russian oil production.
ZARROLI: Whether this is enough to get Russia to change course anytime soon is very much unclear. Matthew Rojansky of the Woodrow Wilson Institute is skeptical. He says President Vladimir Putin has invested a lot of his political power in the Ukraine conflict. His survival as a leader may be at stake.
MATTHEW ROJANSKY: I still query whether the leverage that we can really simply have at the end of the day is enough to overcome the competing pressure that Mr. Putin feels because I think that that competing pressure is far greater than we've understood it.
ZARROLI: With so much at risk, the impact of the sanctions on Russia's oil industry years from now probably doesn't register as a big priority for Putin. Western officials may have to show they're willing to go even further than they already have if they hope to have any real impact on what Russia does next. Jim Zarroli, NPR News. [POST-BROADCAST CORRECTION: In the audio of this story, as in a previous Web version, we say Russia exports more than 10 million barrels of oil per day. That is actually the number of barrels produced. Exports comprise a little less than half that amount.]