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Wind energy is big in Oklahoma. The state ranks fourth in the country for generating power from wind. Still, wind developers in the northeast corner of the state are facing stiff opposition from an unlikely pair of allies - environmentalists and the oil industry. Joe Wertz of StateImpact reports.

JOE WERTZ, BYLINE: Its bison breeding season in Oklahoma. The males are rowdy. The females are frisky. Bob Hamilton says this is the time when horns lock and fur flies.

BOB HAMILTON: What that big guys doing is he's telling everybody this is my girl. Stay away.

WERTZ: Hamilton is the director of the Nature Conservancy's Tall Grass Prairie Preserve which has been fighting to block construction of a 68 turbine wind farm.

HAMILTON: It's a real estate issue. Location - location - location. So where you put industrial wind development can be a tremendously critical decision, especially, if you're talking about at-risk species and ecosystems that are at risk.

WERTZ: Hamilton says a wind farm, even if it's miles away, could destroy the habitats of birds and grouse, like the greater prairie chicken and fragment the wide-open prairie.

JOE BUSH: They talk about fragmenting prairie and such, but it doesn't fragment the Prairie any worse than oil will fragment.

WERTZ: Landowner Joe Bush has already leased out land for two wind farm projects, including the one nature preserve is fighting. Bush says no other landowner should be able to tell him what to do with his property.

BUSH: Stay on your side of the fence. That's not how we do things in America. It's capitalism. It's America - private property is our heritage.

WERTZ: Wind farms are common in western parts of the state, but they're new to this region. There's always been some local resistance from residents who don't want their views ruined by spinning turbines. But Oklahoma's wind energy debate is most magnified in a Osage County, the slice of prairie that Joe Bush and the nature preserve share. Osage county is also home to a powerful opponent of wind farm developments. Everett Waller is a tribal leader with the Osage Nation.

EVERETT WALLER: The side is the problem. It's not the alternate energy, the wind energy - anything of that fact.

WERTZ: While the tribe is worried that wind farm construction could hurt wildlife and disturb native remains and artifacts, one of its biggest concerns is oil. While many nontribal residents like Joe Bush own land in Osage county, the tribal members own most of the mineral rights. Waller says wind farms above ground could block drilling and pumping the oil and gas belowground.

WALLER: I have a job, as chairman of the Minerals Council, to protect my shareholders. This is a business. We're in the oil business.

WERTZ: Oklahoma isn't the only state trying to balance an economically vital oil and gas industry with the promising wind industry. Texas is the country's number one producer of oil and wind energy. Rod Wetsel, an attorney professor at the University of Texas who wrote the book on Texas wind law, says property rights in petroleum states were written with the oil and gas industry in mind.

ROD WETSEL: That's a doctrine that's really hard to explain to wind companies that are from Europe or being financed by lenders in New York - that hey, you better watch out because these oil companies might be able to interfere with your building of the project.

WERTZ: Right now, state regulators have started discussing whether Oklahoma should have stricter rules for wind projects. But Wetsel says even oil and gas states have resisted regulating the wind industry because, ideally, they'd like to find room for a turbine and an oil well. For NPR News, I'm Joe Wertz in Oklahoma City.

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