RENEE MONTAGNE, HOST:
Twenty million dollars - that's what former Fox News anchor Gretchen Carlson won in a settlement last week after claiming her former boss at Fox, Roger Ailes, retaliated against her for rejecting his sexual advances. Hers is a high-profile case, but there are plenty of others. Retaliation claims are increasing, now outnumbering other discrimination complaints, as NPR's Yuki Noguchi reports.
YUKI NOGUCHI, BYLINE: It felt like surrender when Lorraine Segal finally gave up her tenured professorship at a community college teaching English.
LORRAINE SEGAL: I was different. I was the only Jewish lesbian. I was extremely competent and good at what I did, and I stood up for other people who were targets as well.
NOGUCHI: Segal, who lives in Santa Rosa, Calif., says her vocal objections made her unpopular with fellow faculty. They kept information from her, denied her classroom space and wrote a scathing review based on anonymous comments.
SEGAL: And I refused to sign off on their evaluation.
NOGUCHI: After seeking legal counsel, Segal got the review rewritten. But two decades of such experiences wore her down, and she eventually left. Retaliation cases now exceed claims of race discrimination, making up nearly half of all complaints filed with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.
Legally, retaliation is firing, demoting or harassing a worker because they complained or filed a discrimination charge. Experts say over half of retaliation cases are perpetrated by managers. But retaliation can also include bullying as a form of retribution. Catherine Mattice founded Civility Partners, a consultancy focused on changing hostile work culture.
CATHERINE MATTICE: I hear a lot of people say, I was a whistleblower, and I was bullied as a result of that.
NOGUCHI: She herself faced an office nemesis in a previous job who demeaned and berated her and others. Her work suffered. She posted notes to herself saying get up on her alarm clock. After begging the company president to intervene, he told her to leave immediately.
MATTICE: He watched me pack my things, and I left that day. Was I retaliated against? Maybe. Should I have seen employment law attorney? Probably.
NOGUCHI: Mattice says retaliation can exist in a gray area and advises others to save nasty emails and document the incidents. Carol Miaskoff is assistant legal counsel for the EEOC. She says the abuse can take many forms. A manager might retaliate through a demotion, bad evaluation or undesirable assignment to make it seem legitimate. Co-workers might exclude their colleague.
CAROL MIASKOFF: Sometimes people can be really creative about how they retaliate 'cause the goal is to not seem like you are retaliating.
NOGUCHI: The behaviors are often juvenile and underhanded, she says, but the emotional damage is real.
MIASKOFF: I've definitely been bullied, and it was horrible. Indeed, sometimes when I think about why did I go into civil rights law, I think that bullying and what that can do to you is one of the things that drives me.
NOGUCHI: Gary Namie is director of the Workplace Bullying Institute. He says bullying and retaliation are cycles that tend to escalate.
GARY NAMIE: They escalate their campaigns of persecution because they cannot stand being exposed.
NOGUCHI: He says the worst cases can lead to suicide, though that often doesn't clear matters up. The problem gets reinterpreted as a mental health issue.
NAMIE: Even in the face of suicide, I find that corporations and government agencies still do not punish or demote any of the managers who are responsible for the mistreatment.
NOGUCHI: Many workers persist amid difficulties for economic reasons, he says. But just as many stay, out of a desire to stand up to injustice. Yuki Noguchi, NPR News, Washington.
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