Revisiting The Renaissance In 'Harlem Is Nowhere' Sharifa Rhodes-Pitts' memoir of essays explores Harlem's current gentrifying transformation in relation to the Harlem Renaissance as chronicled by James Baldwin, Jean Toomer and other literary greats.


Book Reviews

Revisiting The Renaissance In 'Harlem Is Nowhere'

Harlem is Nowhere by Sharifa Rhodes-Pitts
Harlem is Nowhere
By Sharifa Rhodes-Pitts
Hardcover, 304 pages
Little, Brown and Co.
List Price: $24.99
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Sharifa Rhodes-Pitts has had Harlem on her mind since she was a high school student in Houston reading the work of Jean Toomer, Ann Petry, Zora Neale Hurston, Ralph Ellison, James Baldwin, Langston Hughes and others. In 2002, a recent Harvard graduate, she moved into an apartment without a kitchen on 130th near Lenox. Her first book, Harlem Is Nowhere, is a tender, improvisational memoir of several years spent exploring the myths of this capital of African America and the realities of its 21st-century incarnation.

Rhodes-Pitts spends hours in a branch library on 135th Street, reading of the beginnings of Harlem as a farm suburb settled in the 1880s, its transformation in 1905 when the black migrations from the South began to fill its borders, and the point in 1925 when Alain Locke defined Harlem as a physical center that "focuses a people," and set the stage for the Harlem Renaissance. She goes on a walking tour with tourists, attends community meetings about rezoning and muses on African street vendors, empty lots, chalk messages scribbled on sidewalks and relics of times past, like James Van Der Zee's formal Depression-era photographs and the overstuffed scrapbooks of the early 20th-century eccentric Alexander Gumby.

Sharifa Rhodes-Pitts was born in Texas but moved to Harlem after graduating from Harvard University. Francois Halard hide caption

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Francois Halard

From an older woman named Ms. Minnie, who lives in her building, she learns how to be a caring neighbor. Ms. Minnie is from a black town in South Carolina and at one point confides that her maiden name was Sojourner. "She looked me squarely in the eye before continuing," Rhodes-Pitts writes. "That's not a slave name."

The author borrows her title from Ralph Ellison's essay about post World War II Harlem as a metaphoric space in which "the major energy of the imagination goes not into creating works of art, but to overcome the frustration of social discrimination."

The question of whether or not this metaphoric space remains, and what the future will bring, hovers over these graceful meditative essays. Rhodes-Pitts gives no easy answers. Harlem Is Nowhere is a pilgrimage, a celebration and a cautionary note. It also heralds the arrival of a writer whose voice fits right in with the literary forebears she reveres.

Excerpt: 'Harlem is Nowhere'

Harlem is Nowhere by Sharifa Rhodes-Pitts
Harlem is Nowhere
By Sharifa Rhodes-Pitts
Hardcover, 304 pages
Little, Brown and Co.
List Price: $24.99

A Colony of Their Own

I had already put the key into the door of my building on Lenox Avenue when the question came at my back. In one movement I withdrew the key and turned to face my inquisitor. He stood waiting for my reply and then asked again: Do you think you'll ever go home?

It was one of the neighborhood men who stand outside the front door during the day, sentinels keeping a vigilant watch. When I first moved here they were almost invisible to me; we did not speak and exchanged only the occasional nod. Neither I nor the men were being standoffish. There seemed to be an unspoken rule — perhaps a universal prudence for any strange girl arriving in any strange place — that I should come to know the women first. After I had been accepted by the women, the men began to make themselves known. By that point, the women had warned me about which men to avoid, I'd learned to discriminate between geezer flirtation and jive, and I could hold my own with the biggest jive talkers. Soon, I was drawn into a form of protection. My new friends declared this adoption at unexpected moments — one or another of the neighbors would introduce me as their daughter. If I was stranded in the midst of an unwanted conversation with a persistent sidewalk suitor, one of the sentinels would swoop in to see him off. But if I came home accompanied by a man of my own choosing, I was later expected to give an account of his intentions, employment, and character.

Home, he said again to my puzzled stare. Down South. Do you think you'll ever go back home?

It was a time when I was often in and out of the city. During phone conversations with friends, if I said I was at home they'd always ask, Where? But on this day, the man's question came out of nowhere. As I'd approached the stoop he'd remarked, Cold enough for you? on what was a relatively warm day a few weeks before the start of spring. I'd responded, Not bad, not bad at all, noting how easily that banality passed my lips — approximating the tones of a northerner, feigning comprehension of their seasons. Maybe he sensed the falseness of my reply. Maybe that's why he asked that question, presuming a desire I was not in contact with on that particular morning.

I answered cheerfully. Home to Texas? But I go back all the time . . . This sent him scattering into an apologetic retreat, as if he suddenly had a sense of invading my privacy. Oh, he said, and Oh, he repeated, as if the problem of my dislocation had suddenly been made right.

I did not ask him if he ever went home. I did not think of it until I was already in the narrow corridor that leads to the staircase that leads to my apartment, and now, in the act of recording it, this passing forgetfulness that he was also far from home strikes me as a failure of empathy. The yearning may have been more his than my own.

The view from the Metro North stop at 125th Street on Feb. 15, 2001, in New York City's Harlem neighborhood. Sharifa Rhodes-Pitts' new collection of essays recalls her experience moving to Harlem compared with the experiences of writers, like Langston Hughes and Zora Neale Hurston, who came before her. Spencer Platt/Getty Images hide caption

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Spencer Platt/Getty Images

It was odd that he should think of me, even as I crossed my own threshold, as a stranger — someone on the verge of departure, highly susceptible to the mere mention of flight. (I might at that moment have turned around and gone; I might just then have been thinking of it.) But it says much about the impermanent status of my residence here. My neighbors were accustomed to seeing me leave with luggage in the earliest part of the morning. I had maintained an innocence of city politics and refused certain hallmarks of the committed citizen of New York, like a red or black wire rolling cart for groceries, or a tabloid newspaper selected on the basis of the best horoscopes. I should not have been surprised that some of my neighbors on Lenox Avenue were still trying to understand my presence in their midst. On a different occasion, a different man from outside my door had asked where I was from. He was surprised — pleased, even — to hear I was from Texas. Oh, he'd said . I thought you were a foreigner.

One restless, idle hour, I sat at the library on 135th Street and consulted The Columbia-Lippincott Gazetteer of the World, copying out the following entry, as if to gain my bearings:

Harlem: A residential and business district of N Manhattan

borough of New York City, SE N.Y., bounded approximately

by Central Park and 110th St. (S), East R. (E), Harlem R.

(NE), 168th St (W). Largest Negro community (pop. More

than 400,000) in U.S. grew up here after 1910; one of the

most congested districts in U.S., Harlem also has large colonies

of Puerto Rican, Italian, and Latin American background.

The Du. Settlement of Nieuw Haarlem was est.

here 1658 by Peter Stuyvesant; in the Revolution, Continental

forces stopped the British advance up Manhattan in battle

(Sept., 1776) of Harlem Heights. Area remained virtually

rural until improvement in 19th cent. of transportation

links with lower Manhattan. Public-housing projects (begun

in 1930s) and other attempts to relieve unfavorable conditions

there have been made.

At first it seems to give an all-encompassing view — complete with official borders, colonial heroics, and important urban planning highlights. Yet it manages to say nothing at all. In search of further detail I seized upon another definition, from the pages of The Handbook of Geographical Nicknames. This volume reveals that a city called Hankow is "The Pittsburgh of China"; that "The Happy Valley" refers to war-torn Kashmir and to the riverine gorge cut by the Tennessee; and that the Harz Mountains of Germany, the location of the silver mines where Leibniz once toiled, is now or once was "The Stronghold of Paganism." Situated near these is Harlem, whose nickname, "The Capital of the Negro Population of the United States," was not nearly as catchy or evocative as I'd expected. Though the phrase lacks poetry, it retains an accidental precision: the outdated term "Negro" (already antique when the book was published, in 1980) fixes our attention on the past.

Excerpted from Harlem is Nowhere: A Journey to the Mecca of Black America by Sharifa Rhodes-Pitts. Copyright 2011 by Sharifa Rhodes-Pitts. Excerpted with permission by Little, Brown and Co. All rights reserved.