Joseph Shapiro Joseph Shapiro is a NPR News Investigations correspondent.

Money Drove Criminal Justice System In Ferguson, DOJ Report Says

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Edward Brown, who was jailed for not paying fines he couldn't afford, is among 16 plaintiffs in two lawsuits filed against the cities of Ferguson and Jennings, Mo. Joseph Shapiro/NPR hide caption

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Jail Time For Unpaid Court Fines And Fees Can Create Cycle Of Poverty

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Tonya DeBerry (center) and her children, Herbert Nelson and Allison Nelson, have all been held in Ferguson and Jennings jails for unpaid traffic tickets. Joseph Shapiro/NPR hide caption

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Civil Rights Attorneys Sue Ferguson Over 'Debtors Prisons'

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McArthur Edwards' driver's license was suspended for two years because he was unable to pay a $64 fine. He's using this bus stop to commute. Joseph Shapiro/NPR hide caption

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How Driver's License Suspensions Unfairly Target The Poor

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Desiree Seats, 23, lost her license for two years before she even got it because of an unpaid fine. Without a license, she couldn't find the jobs she needed to start earning money. Joseph Shapiro/NPR hide caption

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Can't Pay Your Fines? Your License Could Be Taken

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Sharnalle Mitchell (center) in Montgomery in May, after winning an injunction to stop the city from collecting court fines. With her (from left): attorney Alec Karakatsanis, fellow plaintiffs Lorenzo Brown and Tito Williams and attorney Matt Swerdlin. Courtesy of Alec Karakatsanis hide caption

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Courtesy of Alec Karakatsanis

John Kelly speaks during a campus rally about sexual violence at Tufts University on May 1. Courtesy of Leah Mushkin-Pierret hide caption

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Courtesy of Leah Mushkin-Pierret

Campus Sexual Assault Law Now Includes Language On Same-Sex Violence

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Police officers equipped in riot gear line up during a protest of the shooting death of 18-year-old Michael Brown outside Ferguson Police Department Headquarters on Aug. 11, 2014, in Ferguson, Mo. Michael B. Thomas/Getty Images hide caption

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Michael B. Thomas/Getty Images

In Ferguson, Mo., Before Michael Brown There Was Henry Davis

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A line of people wait to speak during a meeting of the Ferguson City Council on Tuesday. The meeting was the first for the council since the fatal shooting of Michael Brown by a city police officer. Jeff Roberson/AP hide caption

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Ferguson's Plan To Cut Back On Court Fees Could Inspire Change

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People line up to take part in an amnesty program to clear up outstanding misdemeanor arrest warrants in August 2013, in Ferguson, Mo. For those living on the economic margins, the consequences of even a minor criminal violation can lead to a spiral of debt, unpaid obligations, unemployment and even arrest. Jeff Roberson/AP hide caption

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In Ferguson, Court Fines And Fees Fuel Anger

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Carson Luke, 13, was injured when he was restrained at a school in Virginia when he was 10 years old. Sarah Tilotta/NPR hide caption

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National Data Confirm Cases Of Restraint And Seclusion In Public Schools

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Facing Doubts About Court Fines, Lawmakers Take Questions To Heart

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