The People's Pharmacy Radio Program Everything from home remedies to the latest breakthrough drugs are discussed on The People's Pharmacy. Pharmacologist Joe Graedon and medical anthropologist Terry Graedon talk to leading experts to discuss issues relating to drugs, herbs, home remedies, vitamins and related health topics.
The People's Pharmacy Radio Program

The People's Pharmacy Radio Program

From North Carolina Public Radio

Everything from home remedies to the latest breakthrough drugs are discussed on The People's Pharmacy. Pharmacologist Joe Graedon and medical anthropologist Terry Graedon talk to leading experts to discuss issues relating to drugs, herbs, home remedies, vitamins and related health topics.More from The People's Pharmacy Radio Program »

Most Recent Episodes

Show 1152: Can You Conquer Your Cravings with Mindfulness?

Have you ever thought about how a bad habit gets started? You can blame the neural wiring and chemistry we share with all animals. When we do something that feels good in the moment, we remember it and are likely to repeat that action. But "feels good" doesn't always translate into "good for you." How can you conquer your cravings? Addiction can be defined as "continued use despite adverse consequences." By this definition, there are quite a few things we may be addicted to, including Good & Plenty or Gummy Worms candy. In addition to the obvious (tobacco, coffee, alcohol), there are behaviors like texting or anxiety that might not seem addictive but can become unhealthy. To change these habits, we need to pay attention to how the loop of trigger-behavior-reward works for us. How Can Mindfulness Help? Employing mindfulness just as you might use it during meditation can be useful. If you have ever tried to meditate, you know how hard it can be to keep your thoughts from wandering off. And perhaps you have been advised to recognize that detour, accept it, pay attention to how it feels and note what is happening from moment to moment. Recognizing the trigger, the behavior and how the reward actually feels can help you identify what you persist in doing despite adverse consequences. This type of mindfulness can also help you conquer your cravings and change your behavior. Changing the Reward to Conquer Your Cravings: If you want to change your behavior, you need to figure out how to change the way you react to the trigger. But first, you need to change the reward, and you need to make yourself a bigger, better offer. Can you substitute curiosity about how you are feeling and how that changes moment to moment for your craving? Mindfulness can help you bring your attention to the present without being judgmental. To learn more about how to manage anxiety, you may wish to visit the website UnwindingAnxiety.com. Dr. Brewer's app for people with disordered eating is Eat Right Now. And you'll find more evidence-based resources at JudsonBrewer.com. This Week's Guest: Judson Brewer, MD, PhD, is an internationally known thought leader in the field of habit change and the "science of self-mastery." His 20 years of experience with mindfulness training enhanced his scientific research. He is the Director of Research and Innovation at Brown University's Mindfulness Center and associate professor of psychiatry at the Medical School. Dr. Brewer has developed novel mindfulness programs for habit change, including smoking, stress eating, and anxiety (e.g. www.goeatrightnow.com, www.unwindinganxiety.com), and has studied their underlying brain mechanisms. His work has been featured on "60 Minutes," at TED.com (4th most viewed talk of 2016 with over 10 million views), in Time magazine, Forbes, NPR and the BBC among others. His website is www.judsonbrewer.com. You can follow him on Twitter: @JudsonBrewer His book is The Craving Mind: From Cigarettes to Smartphones to Love – Why We Get Hooked and How We Can Break Bad Habits. Listen to the Podcast: The podcast of this program will be available the Monday after the broadcast date. The show can be streamed online from this site and podcasts can be downloaded for free. CDs may be purchased at any time after broadcast for $9.99. Buy the CD Download the mp3 (Choose mp3 from the pulldown just above the orange "Add to Cart" button.)

Show 1151: What Was the First Immunotherapy for Cancer?

Back at the turn of the 20th century, the only treatment for most types of cancer was surgery. When a young New York doctor lost his first patient to sarcoma despite treating her by the book, he began to look for other approaches. What he came up with was actually the first immunotherapy for cancer. Dr. William Coley discovered that some cancer patients with strep infections developed high fevers and subsequently had their tumors regress. He worked out a way to induce fever with a bacterial toxin, dubbed Coley's toxin. This first immunotherapy for cancer had quite an impressive success rate. What Happened to the First Immunotherapy for Cancer? Coley's toxin was used by many doctors during the first part of the 20th century. When conventional chemotherapy was developed mid-century, it displaced Coley's toxin. Dr. Coley's approach was largely forgotten for decades. Around the turn of the 21st century, entrepreneur Don MacAdam attempted to produce it commercially, but his efforts were thwarted by regulatory agencies such as HealthCanada and the FDA. Does the First Immunotherapy for Cancer Hold Any Lessons for Our Time? Immunotherapy is now one of the most promising new treatments for many types of cancer. Some medicines, such as CAR-T , are designed specifically for individual patients and teach their immune systems to attack the cancer. Understanding how Coley's toxin worked against cancer also helps us understand these modern medications. Oncologists are now using immunotherapy in conjunction with chemotherapy to kill cancer cells and get a better response. Find out how the lymphatic system is involved in this way of treating cancer and how doctors try to determine which patients will respond best. How can families stay up to date on the latest treatments? One resource we discuss with Dr. Evans is ClinicalTrials.gov This Week's Guests: Don MacAdam is the former head of MBVax Bioscience and the author of The Reinvention of Coley's Toxins that tells the story of a small company with limited financial resources that proved a modern version of the first immunotherapy for cancer was able to induce complete and lasting regressions of cancers that no longer responded to conventional therapies. His book is available at Amazon: https://www.amazon.com/The-Reinvention-of-Coleys-Toxins/dp/0995921822 Sharon S. Evans, PhD, is a Professor of Oncology in the Immunology Department at Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center in Buffalo, New York. Dr. Evans is a past president of the international Society for Thermal Medicine, which honored her this past year with the J. Eugene Robinson Lifetime Achievement Award. Her research program is focused on the inflammatory cues that positively or negatively impact our protective immune system during infection or medical treatments such as cancer immunotherapy. Roswell Park was one of the very first comprehensive cancer centers designated by the National Cancer Institute, in 1972. https://www.roswellpark.org/ https://www.roswellpark.org/immunotherapy https://www.roswellpark.org/cancertalk Filip Janku, MD, PhD, is Associate Professor in the Department of Investigational Cancer Therapeutics of the Division of Cancer Medicine at the The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, TX. Listen to the Podcast: The podcast of this program has been extended to include more of Don MacAdam's story. It also includes an interview with Filip Janku, MD, PhD. He is an Associate Professor in the Department of Investigational Cancer Therapeutics of the Division of Cancer Medicine at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, TX. His research, published in Science Translational Medicine, demonstrated that injecting bacterial spores into tumors can be a successful treatment. Here is a description from the journal Science. The podcast will be available the Monday after the broadcast date. The show can be streamed online from this site and podcasts can be downloaded for free. CDs may be purchased at any time after broadcast for $9.99. Buy the CD Download the mp3 (Choose mp3 from the pulldown menu above the "Add to Cart" button)

Show 1150: Should You Fire Your Doctor?

Decades ago, the relationship between a patient and a doctor was often asymmetrical. The doctor decided what treatment was needed and issued "doctor's orders." Patients were expected to follow through, no questions. In most cases, they couldn't ask questions because they didn't have access to enough information to formulate reasonable queries. How 20th century! Today, patients have far more information available to them, and they expect to participate in making decisions about their health and their treatment. When the doctor is enthusiastic about shared decision-making, the relationship should go smoothly. But if either the doctor or the patient expects a different type of relationship, there may be problems. How can you resolve them? Should You Fire Your Doctor? Sometimes, a patient may discover that she doesn't like the treatments her doctor has recommended. If a discussion of the options doesn't yield a more acceptable treatment she feels she can follow, she may need to seek a different doctor. What is the best way to do this? How do you make sure that your medical records make the change as well? Do you as a patient have a right to fire your doctor? Will Your Doctor Fire You? Occasionally, a doctor will tell a patient that unless he follows through on the medical recommendations, he will no longer be welcome as a patient. Does a doctor have a right to do this? When is this action justified? A doctor-patient relationship is two-sided. Patients who skip appointments or fail to pay their bills can expect consequences from that behavior. Likewise, doctors who appear uninterested in a patient's health concerns may also anticipate that the patient could react. We get perspectives from both sides of the stethoscope. JAMA has just published a viewpoint on Trust in Health Care that is relevant to the relationship between patients and healthcare providers (Jan. 24, 2019). This Week's Guests: Trisha Torrey founded Every Patient's Advocate. After a frightening misdiagnosis in 2004, she decided that we all need to learn to take better responsibility for our own medical care. Since no one teaches us to be smart patients, she started on her journey to change that. Since then she has written 6 books, including her You Bet Your Life books, and has worked toward development of an entirely new profession – that of independent, professional healthcare advocate. You Bet Your Life! The 10 Mistakes Every Patient Makes: How to Fix Them to Get the Healthcare You Deserve You Bet Your Life! The Top 10 Reasons You Need a Professional Patient Advocate by Your Side Her websites include: EveryPatientsAdvocate.com, www.AdvoConnection.com/blog, YouBetYourLifeBooks.com and www.AdvoConnection.com David Meyers, MD, is the Chief Medical Officer (CMO) of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, where he assists in strategic planning. He also leads AHRQ's response to the nation's opioid crisis and directs EvidenceNOW, AHRQ's $110 million initiative to help primary care practices improve the heart health of their patients through quality improvement support and the implementation of new evidence. Prior to his appointment as CMO, he directed AHRQ's Center for Evidence and Practice Improvement. He also has led the Agency's primary care Practice-Based Research Network initiatives and served as the Acting Scientific Director for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Before joining AHRQ in 2004, he practiced family medicine, including maternity care, in a community health center in southeast Washington, D.C., and directed the Georgetown University Department of Family Medicine's practice-based research network, CAPRICORN. He is a graduate of the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine and completed his family medicine residency at Providence Hospital/Georgetown University. After residency, he completed fellowship training in primary care health policy and research in the Department of Family Medicine at Georgetown University. Listen to the Podcast: The podcast of this program will be available the Monday after the broadcast date. The show can be streamed online from this site and podcasts can be downloaded for free. CDs may be purchased at any time after broadcast for $9.99. Buy the CD Download the mp3 (Choose mp3 from the pulldown above the "Add to Cart" button)

Show 1149: Is Cutting Carbs More Important Than Cutting Calories?

The diet wars have been raging for years. Each side has ardent proponents–those who insist that a low-fat diet is the best way to control weight and those who are convinced that a low-carb diet is better have had a hard time finding common ground. Even those who endorse a more moderate approach can be emphatic about pushing their perspective, particularly those who insist that the only route is cutting calories and increasing activity. Why Cutting Carbs May Be More Important Than Cutting Calories: In November, 2018, The BMJ published a study showing that a low-carb diet was effective for maintaining weight loss. But that's not all: the research showed that people eating fewer carbs had higher energy expenditure. This lent support to the low-carb crowd. The Carbohydrate-Insulin Model: Dr. David Ludwig, a principal investigator of the study, has written previously about "The Carbohydrate-Insulin Model of Obesity–Beyond 'Calories In, Calories Out.'" His essay was published in JAMA Internal Medicine. He explains why refocusing on reducing carbohydrate intake rather than simply calories may be more effective for long-term weight control. Dietary Fat–Friend or Foe? In November, the journal Science published a commentary by Dr. Ludwig and three other nutrition scientists with widely different perspectives. In it, they reviewed the evidence on low-fat and low-carb diets and outlined where they found consensus and where there is still significant controversy. Are all calories equal? The proponents of simply cutting calories count on it. But while this may be a basic law of physics, humans are not machines. The new research suggests that the relationship between calories, metabolism and weight may be more complicated. This Week's Guest: David S. Ludwig, MD, PhD, is co-director of the New Balance Foundation Obesity Prevention Center at Boston Children's Hospital, a professor of pediatrics at Harvard Medical School and a professor of nutrition at Harvard's T.H. Chan School of Public Health. Dr. Ludwig has written three books for the public, including Ending the Food Fight, Always Hungry? and the cookbook Always Delicious. You may also enjoy reading his recent piece in the LA Times. Listen to the Podcast: The podcast of this program will be available the Monday after the broadcast date. The show can be streamed online from this site and podcasts can be downloaded for free. CDs may be purchased at any time after broadcast for $9.99. Buy the CD

Show 1148: What Can You Do About Kidney Stones?

Kidney stones afflict an estimated three million Americans each year, resulting in at least half a million trips to the emergency department. But what are they and what can you do about them? How do they form and how might you prevent them? We hear from a listener who has first-hand experience of the pain of kidney stones. Then we get a primer in this condition from urologist Glenn Preminger of Duke University Medical Center. Find out what types of kidney stones there are, which kinds are most common, and how they are diagnosed. Dr. Preminger also describes treatments including lithotripsy, medical expulsive therapy with tamsulosin and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (a form of minimally invasive surgery). What Are Kidney Stones? These tiny rock-like deposits form in the kidneys by substances precipitating out of the urine. The trouble comes once they get into the ureters to be flushed out of the body. Especially where the tube is tiny, even small kidney stones can cause irritation and cramping pain called renal colic. Doctors often use CT scans to make the definitive diagnosis of kidney stones. When a patient passes a stone, he or she can ask the doctor to have it analyzed. That will reveal what type of stone it was and may offer clues for prevention. Geology and Kidney Stones: You may be wondering what geology has to do with kidney stones. After all, don't these little things form inside a human body? They do indeed, but they are far more like real rocks than you might imagine. We talk with Dr. Bruce Fouke about the common biomineralization processes involved in creating rocks in Yellowstone National Park, coral skeletons in the ocean and kidney stones in the body. Dr. Fouke's research has produced the stunning photograph of a kidney stone at the top of the page. This Week's Guests: Sue Wasiolek works in Student Affairs at Duke University. Glenn M. Preminger, MD, is the James F. Glenn Professor of Urology and Chief of the Division of Urologic Surgery at Duke University Medical Center. He is also Director of the Duke Comprehensive Kidney Stone Center. Bruce Fouke, PhD, is a professor of Geology, Microbiology and Genomic Biology at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He also serves as Director of the Illinois Roy J. Carver Biotechnology Center. The Center performs genomic, proteomic, metabolomic and bio-informatic analyses for laboratories around the world. Dr. Fouke conducts geobiology research on coral reefs, hot springs, energy exploration, Roman aqueducts and human kidney stones. He is co-author of The Art of Yellowstone Science: Mammoth Hot Springs as a Window on the Universe. NY Times: Geobiology Reveals How Kidney Stones Dissolve In Vivo https://www.nytimes.com/2018/09/19/health/kidney-stones-geology.html NASA: The Art of Yellowstone Science – Mammoth Hot Springs as a Window on the Universe https://astrobiology.nasa.gov/news/the-art-of-yellowstone-science/ Listen to the Podcast: The podcast of this program will be available the Monday after the broadcast date. The show can be streamed online from this site and podcasts can be downloaded for free. CDs may be purchased at any time after broadcast for $9.99. Buy the CD

Show 1147: How Do You Control Your Cholesterol?

What causes heart disease? There are a number of risk factors, including cigarette smoking, sedentary lifestyle, high blood pressure, diabetes and others. One well-known risk is high cholesterol. Has your doctor told you that you need to control your cholesterol? New Guidelines for Cholesterol Control: The principal cardiologists' organizations in the US recently updated their guidelines on treating high cholesterol. The American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology made changes to the recommendations they had issued in 2013. Will the new treatment suggestions change the way you control your cholesterol? Dr. Steve Nissen of the Cleveland Clinic describes how the guidelines have changed. We discuss who should be taking a statin drug to lower cholesterol and how you would know if your heart attack risk is high enough to warrant medication. Dr. Nissen recommends the Reynolds Risk Calculator. To fill it out, you'll need to know some information you can get only from blood tests: total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, a measure of inflammation. In addition, Dr. Nissen tells us why he doesn't routinely send his patients for calcium coronary scans. You can read about his study on the effects of statin drugs on coronary calcification here. Join the Conversation: We invite you to tell us how you control your cholesterol. Do you take a statin drug? Has that worked well for you? We will consider both benefits and possible side effects. Have you found other ways to control your cholesterol? When a statin is not enough, what are your options? Are you taking one of the new PCSK9 inhibitor medications, Repatha or Praluent? You may call 888-472-3366 between 7 and 8 am EST on Saturday, January 5, 2019. Or send us email: radio@peoplespharmacy.com Dr. Robert DuBroff's commentary, A Reappraisal of the Lipid Hypothesis, was published in the American Journal of Medicine, September 2018. This Week's Guest: Steven Nissen, MD, is chairman of the Robert and Suzanne Tomsich Department of Cardiovascular Medicine at the Cleveland Clinic. He is the co-author, with Marc Gillinov, MD, of Heart 411: The Only Guide to Heart Health You'll Ever Need. Listen to the Podcast: The podcast of this program will be available the Monday after the broadcast date. The show can be streamed online from this site and podcasts can be downloaded for free. CDs may be purchased at any time after broadcast for $9.99. Buy the CD Download the mp3

Show 1146: Why You Should Share Your Stories

Facts are essential for scientific understanding. Stories are critical for wisdom, understanding the arc and meaning of our lives. Dr. Rachel Naomi Remen, author of two wonderful books about stories, describes how some stories can diminish us and our view of ourselves. Others give us strength and hope. Stories can reveal deep meaning in our ordinary lives and relationships. How can we change a story that is not serving us well? Changing Our Stories: Dr. Remen relates how her own story changed after a diagnosis of Crohn's disease. Instead of being an invalid destined for an early death, she became a race car driver with her mother's help. She looks back now on a life story radically different from the severely restricted life the doctors said would be hers at the age of fifteen. As it turns out, you can't know your own story until you have lived it. Counting Our Blessings: As Dr. Remen notes, sometimes a blessing doesn't look like one when it arrives. It may instead look like an obstacle, a challenge or a disappointment. Only in hindsight can we see how it may have contributed to our resilience or our coping ability. We may also have an impact on someone else's story without even realizing it. Dr. Remen believes we have all blessed many more people than we realize. Finding Patience: When a serious medical problem arises, we may need more patience than we expect to be able to get to the bottom of it. But with patience, it will be revealed. We also hear from Dr. Remen about her work with Commonweal Cancer Help Program and the role of stories in healing, even when the condition cannot be cured. This Week's Guest: Dr. Rachel Naomi Remen is Founder and Founding Director of The Remen Institute for the Study of Health and Illness (RISHI) at Wright State University Boonshoft School of Medicine in Dayton, Ohio. Dr. Remen is also Professor of Family Medicine at the Boonshoft School of Medicine and Clinical Professor of Family Medicine at UCSF School of Medicine in San Francisco, California. Dr. Remen's best-selling books of stories, Kitchen Table Wisdom: Stories that Heal and My Grandfather's Blessings: Stories of Strength, Refuge and Belonging have been translated into 23 languages and have sold over a million copies. Since 1991, her course for medical students, The Healer's Art, has been taught in more than a hundred medical schools and completed by more than 21,000 medical students both here and abroad. Listen to the Podcast: The podcast of this program will be available the Monday after the broadcast date. The show can be streamed online from this site and podcasts can be downloaded for free. CDs may be purchased at any time after broadcast for $9.99. Buy the CD Download the mp3 (Choose mp3 from the pulldown menu above the "Add to Cart" button)

Show 1145: Are Big Corporations Hacking the American Mind?

The distinction between pleasure and happiness might seem like a philosopher's quibble. Fat Chance author Dr. Robert Lustig tells us why this difference is vitally important to our national wellbeing. Corporations are hacking the American mind because of our ignorance about the difference between them. Pleasure vs. Happiness: Dr. Lustig describes the neurochemical foundations behind the difference between pleasure, fueled by dopamine, and happiness, powered by serotonin. He attributes the negative extremes of addiction, due to an overload of dopamine, and depression, from too little serotonin, to the ways that corporations have manipulated Americans with marketing. That's why he titled his book The Hacking of the American Mind. How Does Neuro-Marketing Enable Hacking the American Mind? Dr. Lustig details how neuro-marketing plays into the sad state of affairs that has resulted in too many Americans ending up fat, sick, broke, stupid, depressed, addicted or unhappy. How has our government enabled these developments? What roles have our educational systems played? And most importantly, how can we break out of this vicious cycle? To dampen dopamine and increase serotonin for more lasting contentment, we need to pay attention to the four Cs: Connect, Contribute, Cope and Cook. Learn about the science behind the corporate takeover of our minds. This Week's Guest: Robert H. Lustig, MD, MSL, is professor of pediatrics in the Division of Endocrinology and a member of the Institute for Health Policy Studies at the University of California, San Francisco. Dr. Lustig consults for several childhood obesity advocacy groups and government agencies. Dr. Lustig is the author of Fat Chance: Beating the Odds Against Sugar, Processed Food, Obesity, and Disease, and his latest book, The Hacking of the American Mind: The Science Behind the Corporate Takeover of Our Bodies and Brains. Listen to the Podcast: The podcast of this program will be available the Monday after the broadcast date. The show can be streamed online from this site and podcasts can be downloaded for free. CDs may be purchased at any time after broadcast for $9.99.

Show 1144: New Ways to Heal Your Digestive Tract

Heartburn is a common problem. Many people take powerful acid-suppressing drugs like Nexium or Prilosec every day to treat gastro-esophageal reflux disease or GERD. If untreated, chronic irritation of the swallowing tube can lead to Barrett's esophagus. Do you have to take medications forever to treat this condition? Are there better ways to heal your digestive tract? How Often Do You Need Colonoscopy? Dr. Nicholas Shaheen has written about finding the right balance of endoscopy so that intestinal cancers are detected early enough for treatment and patients are not exposed to undue risks from overly-frequent screening. Colonoscopy is effective for detecting colon polyps before they become cancerous. Having colonoscopies at the correct interval can prevent or greatly reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. What interval is correct for you? In the esophagus, chronic exposure to stomach acid can lead to changes doctors call Barrett's esophagus. This is a pre-cancerous condition. How often does someone with this disorder need upper GI endoscopy to screen for esophageal cancer? Just what is the risk of esophageal cancer? New Ways to Heal Your Digestive Tract from Barrett's Esophagus: When gastroenterologists perform endoscopies and discover the beginnings of a tumor in the esophagus, they can remove it then and there. The procedure is called endoscopic mucosal resection. A new technique, ablation, to heal Barrett's esophagus shows great promise. It may often reverse the problem indefinitely. Find out how you can deal with heartburn and how you can heal your digestive tract if you have chronic reflux. How Can You Heal Your Digestive Tract from C Diff? Antibiotic treatment can frequently disrupt the balance of bacteria in the colon. The consequence may be a C diff infection that can cause severe diarrhea. The usual treatment for C diff is additional antibiotic therapy, but that isn't always effective. The FDA has approved fecal transplants for treating C diff infections. What are they, and how do they work? What other conditions might respond to fecal transplants designed to re-establish a normal microbial balance in the digestive tract? This Week's Guests: Nicholas J. Shaheen, MD, MPH, is the Bozymski-Heizer Distinguished Professor of Medicine at the University of North Carolina School of Medicine, and Chief of the Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology at UNC. Dr. Shaheen is a recognized expert in esophageal diseases and endoscopy. He is author of multiple treatment guidelines for gastrointestinal illnesses. The photograph is of Dr. Shaheen. His article on "Less Is More: A Minimalist Approach to Endoscopy" was published in Gastroenterology in May 2018. Michael Bretthauer, MD, PhD,is Professor of Medicine at the Institute of Health and Society at the University of Oslo and the Department of Transplantation Medicine in Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway. He is also President of the Frontier Science Foundation in Brookline, MA. Hi article on "Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Primary Clostridium difficile Infection" was published in the New England Journal of Medicine on June 28, 2018. Listen to the Podcast: The podcast of this program will be available the Monday after the broadcast date. The show can be streamed online from this site and podcasts can be downloaded for free. CDs may be purchased at any time after broadcast for $9.99. Buy the CD Download the mp3 (Choose mp3 on the pulldown menu above "Add to Cart")

Show 1143: Can You Control Your Blood Sugar by Fasting?

Type 2 diabetes has reached epidemic levels in the US and around the world. Although endocrinologists consider it a chronic, progressive disorder, some experts have seen that it is potentially reversible and may be preventable. What approaches are helpful? What role could fasting play? Nephrologist Jason Fung, MD, says that you can't manage a dietary disease without considering diet. There are two important considerations. Dietary Considerations: What Do You Eat? First, how much sugar is in the diet? Fructose, which is part of sugar, can contribute to problems with insulin and blood sugar. A diet low in refined carbohydrates is less likely to contribute to trouble controlling insulin and blood sugar. Should You Be Fasting? Second, when do you eat? A schedule that restricts eating to no more than six or eight hours a day has been shown to help restore metabolic health. Fasting for two or three days a week can even reverse insulin resistance, as Dr. Fung and his colleagues documented in the case studies they published recently (BMJ Case Reports, Oct. 9, 2018). Three people with diabetes who had required insulin were able to reduce their HbA1c, their waist circumference and their weight. As a result of therapeutic fasting, they no longer need insulin to control their blood sugar. This Week's Guest: Dr. Jason Fung is a Canadian nephrologist. He's a world-leading expert on intermittent fasting and low-carbohydrate diet, especially for treating people with type 2 diabetes. He has written three bestselling health books and co-founded the Intensive Dietary Management program. Dr. Fung's latest book is The Diabetes Code, Prevent and Reverse Type 2 Diabetes Naturally. His website is www.IDMprogram.com Listen to the Podcast: The podcast of this program will be available the Monday after the broadcast date. The show can be streamed online from this site and podcasts can be downloaded for free. CDs may be purchased at any time after broadcast for $9.99. Buy the CD Download the mp3

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