The People's Pharmacy Radio Program Everything from home remedies to the latest breakthrough drugs are discussed on The People's Pharmacy. Pharmacologist Joe Graedon and medical anthropologist Terry Graedon talk to leading experts to discuss issues relating to drugs, herbs, home remedies, vitamins and related health topics.
The People's Pharmacy Radio Program

The People's Pharmacy Radio Program

From North Carolina Public Radio

Everything from home remedies to the latest breakthrough drugs are discussed on The People's Pharmacy. Pharmacologist Joe Graedon and medical anthropologist Terry Graedon talk to leading experts to discuss issues relating to drugs, herbs, home remedies, vitamins and related health topics.

Most Recent Episodes

Show 1165: Can Your Doctor's Positive Attitude Improve Your Health?

We all prefer to interact with people who are friendly, supportive and helpful. But when it comes to health care providers, does "bedside manner" really make a difference? Or is a doctor's positive attitude irrelevant to the medical outcome? Does Your Doctor's Positive Attitude Affect Your Health? We talk with a scientist who has looked into this question and concluded that "having a doctor who is warm and reassuring actually improves your health." Doctoral candidate Kari Leibowitz will explain her research and how she reached that conclusion. She also suggests how this effects of a doctor's positive attitude may be working. How Does Your Doctor React to Dr. Google? Many people have told us that if they take the results of an internet search to their doctor visit, the reception can be frosty. Dr. Mike Stang welcomes his patients bringing him their ideas and the information they have found. Does treating patients like partners make a difference in their care? Tell us about your experiences, especially when a doctor's positive attitude made a difference: 888-472-3366 between 7 and 8 am EDT on Saturday, May 18, 2019. Or send us email: radio@peoplespharmacy.com This Week's Guests: Kari Leibowitz is a Stanford Interdisciplinary Graduate Fellow and doctoral candidate in psychology at Stanford University. Kari works in the Stanford Mind & Body Lab and her research involves leveraging mindsets to improve healthcare experiences and outcomes. https://mbl.stanford.edu/ Her research was published in the Journal of General Internal Medicine in December 2018 and written up in The New York Times. The photo is of Ms. Leibowitz. Michael T. Stang, MD, is the Chief Quality Officer for Duke Raleigh Hospital in the Duke Medical Center. He is an Associate Professor of Surgery, an endocrine surgeon, and a surgical oncologist. Listen to the Podcast: The podcast of this program will be available the Monday after the broadcast date. The show can be streamed online from this site and podcasts can be downloaded for free. CDs may be purchased at any time after broadcast for $9.99. Buy the CD Download the mp3

Show 1164: Will We Win the Race Against Emerging Superbugs?

Dr. Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin in 1928, after observing horrific lethal infections on the battlefields of the first World War. It was the first antibiotic to defeat a wide range of terrifying diseases. Today, however, there are frequently shortages of this critical medication. In addition, penicillin and related antibiotics may not kill emerging superbugs. Less than a century after the discovery of penicillin, many bacteria have evolved into superbugs. As a consequence, antibiotics are no longer effective in killing them. Some microbes have developed resistance to multiple drugs and can no longer be treated with medications. This year alone, drug-resistant infections will probably kill 700,000 people. By 2050, the UN estimates that as many as 10 million people will die annually from infections caused by drug-resistant microbes. Are the Financial Incentives Misaligned? Initially, pharmaceutical manufacturers were enthusiastic about developing new antimicrobial products. But over the last several decades, they have become much less interested in doing R&D on products that are taken only for a short term, as successful antibiotics are. Many companies would rather focus on medications that must be taken every day for years, because they get a better return on their investment. Has this contributed to the rise of the superbugs? The Source of Emerging Superbugs: Superbugs began to evolve by the mid-1960s. Now, pathogens like methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or MRSA have become common. Doctors are working on developing a new antimicrobial drug called dalbavansin that should treat emerging superbugs successfully for a least a while. This Week's Guest: Matt McCarthy, MD, is an assistant professor of medicine at Weill Cornell Medical School and a staff physician at New York-Presbyterian Hospital. Dr. McCarthy is editor-in-chief of Current Fungal Infection Reports and author of two best-selling books: Odd Man Out and The Real Doctor Will See You Shortly. His latest is Superbugs: The Race to Stop an Epidemic, to be published May 21. You can learn more at http://www.drmattmccarthy.com/books/superbugs-hc His website is http://drmattmccarthy.com/ The photograph of Dr. McCarthy was taken by Nina Subin. Listen to the Podcast: The podcast of this program will be available the Monday after the broadcast date. The show can be streamed online from this site and podcasts can be downloaded for free. CDs may be purchased at any time after broadcast for $9.99. Buy the CD Download the mp3

Show 1163: Should You Trust Your Prescription Drugs?

Do you use mail order for your prescription drugs to get a better price? Many insurance companies strongly encourage people to order online from preferred sources so they can control how much they have to pay. Most of us like to save money. However, are there any downsides to getting your medicines mailed instead of picking them up at the pharmacy? Too Hot or Too Cold? The FDA and the drug makers set standards for how your prescription drugs should be stored. In most cases, these also apply to how they should be shipped. Yet shipping vehicles may easily become much too hot in the summertime or too cold in the winter. How does such temperature variation affect the potency of the medicines? Weighing Price vs Quality: Shockingly high prescription medication prices in the US have led many Americans to focus almost exclusively on price. That is the allure of cheap generic drugs made in places with lower wages. Is there a trade-off against quality, though? Now that more than 80 percent of our generic drugs come from overseas, the FDA has difficulty carrying out inspections. The recent recalls of the blood pressure pills losartan, valsartan and irbesartan due to contamination with cancer-causing chemicals underscores the importance of maintaining manufacturing quality. A Whistleblower Speaks Up: Dinesh Thakur was a drug developer in the US for more than a decade, but he was excited to have a chance to work in the pharmaceutical industry in his home country of India. However, when he discovered that the company he worked for had a practice of falsifying drug quality data, he blew the whistle. He notified the US FDA of the problems. As a result, the agency banned the company from exporting some of its products to the US. Ultimately, the firm paid $500 million in fines and pleaded guilty. Problems persisted, however. Mr. Thakur explains the difficulties of monitoring manufacturing quality in India and elsewhere. American consumers and their doctors need to learn to pay attention to medication quality as well as price. You may find this challenging, but you can check online for the reputation of the manufacturer listed on your prescription drugs bottles. This Week's Guests: Stephen F. Eckel, PharmD, MHA, BCPS, is Associate Dean for Global Engagement and Interim Chair of the Division of Practice Advancement and Clinical Education at UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy. He is also a clinical associate professor there. Dr. David Gortler is a former FDA Medical Officer and has worked as a pharmacology expert in the area of drug safety for two decades. He is a professor of pharmacology and biotechnology in Washington, DC. He consults for the group www.FormerFDA.com. He has written articles regarding America's dependence on low-quality imported generic drugs and the FDA's repeated failures to regulate such medications properly. Dinesh Thakur is a public health activist focused on improving the quality of affordable medicines around the globe. His current focus is to improve health policy and drug regulation in both the US and India. As a whistleblower, he was responsible for the prosecution of Ranbaxy Laboratories for supplying adulterated drugs to the US market in 2013. The company pled guilty to criminal felonies in the US court and paid $500 million in fines. The need for data integrity has become a global issue in drug manufacturing since his case became public. His website is: www.dineshthakur.com You can find him on Twitter: @d_s_thakur Listen to the Podcast: The podcast of this program will be available the Monday after the broadcast date. The show can be streamed online from this site and podcasts can be downloaded for free. CDs may be purchased at any time after broadcast for $9.99. Buy the CD Download the mp3

Show 1162: How to Treat Common Thyroid Problems

The thyroid gland on your neck is not very big, but it is super important. It secretes hormones that control the activity of every cell in your body. Consequently, the thyroid regulates your metabolism, your heart beats, your bowels and even your thinking. What happens when the thyroid doesn't work as it should? How do doctors treat the most common thyroid problems? Autoimmune conditions create common thyroid problems. As a result, levothyroxine (a synthetic thyroid hormone) is the most frequently prescribed medication in the US. In fact, nearly 20 million people have some form of thyroid disease, but not all of them know it. What are the consequences of Hashimoto's disease and Graves' disease? Treating Graves, the Overactive Thyroid: When the body makes antibodies to the thyroid receptor, the consequence is Graves' disease. As a result of this attack, the gland makes more thyroid hormone than is needed. As a consequence, a person with Graves' may have a rapid heart rate, tremors, weight loss, insomnia, heat intolerance, weakness, nervousness and anxiety. Some people with Graves' disease will develop bulging eyes and eye inflammation. To treat this condition, doctors have medications such as methimazole, radioactive iodine or surgery. Hashimoto's and Sluggish Thyroid: In Hashimoto's disease, the immune system starts to destroy the thyroid gland and impairs its ability to produce hormones. Consequently, people may feel sluggish and be bothered with constipation. They may have difficulty losing weight and notice that they are losing their hair. Their skin may be extremely dry and they may become extremely sensitive to cold. Too little thyroid hormone and too much are both common thyroid problems. In addition, doctors generally use a single synthetic hormone to treat hypothyroidism. That's levothyroxine or T4. However, some people seem to have difficulty converting T4 to the active T3 hormone at an appropriate rate. What can they do? Have you had experience with a malfunctioning thyroid gland? How was it diagnosed? How did the treatment go? Tell your story in the comments section. You can find our eGuide to Thyroid Hormones here. This Week's Guest: David S. Cooper, MD, MACP is the Director of the Thyroid Clinic and Professor of Medicine and Radiology in the Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism at The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. His website: https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/endocrinology_diabetes_metabolism/index.html Listen to the Podcast: The podcast of this program will be available the Monday after the broadcast date. The show can be streamed online from this site and podcasts can be downloaded for free. CDs may be purchased at any time after broadcast for $9.99. Buy the CD

Show 1161: What Is the Evidence for Food as Medicine?

Angiogenesis–the growth and development of blood vessels in the body–may seem like an obscure topic. However, angiogenesis is a critical phase in the development of tumors. If it can be blocked when it is inappropriate, we don't get cancer. If not, we may need all the resources of modern oncology to help us recover. Is there a way we can use food as medicine to regulate angiogenesis? Oncologists haven't always been able to suggest things patients can do to help themselves recover from cancer. Lately, however, they have made progress in learning how we can recruit our own immune systems to fight off cancer. They have discovered that our gut microbiota, the balance of bacteria living in our large intestines, can have a significant impact on how well immunotherapy works against certain cancer. How Do We Influence Our Gut Microbiota? Perhaps the most important influence on the microbiota within us is how we feed them. Fortunately, many of the foods they prefer are also beneficial for our own bodies and can help regulate angiogenesis–slow it when it is trying to feed a tumor or speed it up a bit when we need it for healing. There's quite a bit of evidence for this way of using food as medicine. Food as Medicine to Prevent Cancer: Dr. William Li wants us to understand that health is an active process. In addition, in his TED talks and his book, he tells us how we can eat to beat disease. Which foods will inhibit angiogenesis and which one promote it? How can our diet suppress the development of cancers? How can we utilize our microbiota as a defense system? He also has focused on how our body can regenerate itself, at least in part, and how our DNA repairs itself. What can we do to encourage and enhance these defense systems? Some of the foods that Dr. Li discusses in this interview include broccoli sprouts, mushrooms (including ordinary white button mushrooms) and barley, rich in beta-glucans. Both green and black tea as well as stone fruits like plums, peaches, nectarines and apricots are great food as medicine. Onions and garlic are other foods that can activate the immune system. Here is our favorite mushroom-barley soup recipe. Helen Graedon's Mushroom Barley Soup is more or less a no-recipe recipe, in the grand tradition of experienced cooks. Sauté chopped onion, about a cup, in your favorite oil. Add about half a cup each of chopped carrot and celery and a cup and a half of chopped fresh mushrooms. When the onions are soft and the mushrooms beginning to turn golden, add about two quarts of broth. Helen usually used homemade beef broth, but chicken or vegetable broth also works. Add about a cup of barley and around six ounces of dried mushrooms, soaked, and simmer until the barley is done. (This might take 40 minutes, depending on whether the barley is pearled or not.) Add a good big handful of chopped parsley before serving. If Helen had leftover peas, green beans or lima beans, she'd add them towards the end of the cooking. Season to your taste with salt and pepper. This Week's Guest: William W. Li, MD, is an internationally renowned, Harvard-trained medical doctor, researcher, and president and a founder of the Angiogenesis Foundation. His groundbreaking work has led to the development of more than 30 new medical treatments, has impacted more than 50 million people worldwide, and covers more than 70 diseases including cancer, diabetes, blindness, heart disease, and obesity. His TED Talk, "Can We Eat to Starve Cancer?" has garnered more than 11 million views. Dr. Li has served on the faculty of Harvard Medical School and presented at the Vatican's Unite to Cure conference. Dr. Li is the author of Eat to Beat Disease: The New Science of How Your Body Can Heal Itself. Listen to the Podcast: The podcast of this program will be available the Monday after the broadcast date. The show can be streamed online from this site and podcasts can be downloaded for free. CDs may be purchased at any time after broadcast for $9.99. Buy the CD Download the mp3

Show 1125: How Can You Find Your Sleep Solution? (Archive)

You may have read or heard that adequate sleep is a pillar of good health, like exercise and a healthy diet. Sleep affects blood pressure and heart disease, metabolism and obesity, the immune system, cognitive function and mood. But if you can't get enough sleep, that information is more frustrating than helpful. What is interfering with your sleep, and how can you find the best sleep solution? How Much Sleep Do You Really Need? Babies sleep a lot, and sometimes the very elderly do, too. How do sleep needs differ at various ages? How can you tell if you are really getting enough? Certain medications can make it difficult for people to fall asleep or stay asleep. Others may disrupt the normal stages of sleep. Which are the most common culprits, and what can be done about them? Sleeping Pills: People who frequently toss and turn at night may look to sleeping pills like eszopiclone (Lunesta), zaleplon (Sonata) and zolpidem (Ambien) as a sleep solution. What should you know about the benefits and risks of these medications? Other commonly used drugs such as trazodone and Seroquel have never even been approved for sleep problems. Over-the-counter sleep aids also have pros and cons. People who can't turn off their thoughts might want to consider a device called a MUSE that can help practice meditation and quieting brain activity. What Is Good Sleep Hygiene? When experts recommend "good sleep hygiene," what the heck do they mean? How much does it help to exercise early and take a hot bath an hour before bedtime? Find out about non-drug approaches to restless legs and other sleep problems. This Week's Guest: Dr. Chris Winter is a board certified sleep medicine specialist and neurologist. He has worked with professional sports organizations including the Cleveland Indians, The New York Rangers and the Oklahoma City Thunder. Since 2008 Dr Winter has served as the Men's Health magazine sleep advisor and he blogs for the Huffington Post. Dr. Winter owns Charlottesville Neurology and Sleep Medicine Clinic and CNSM consulting in Charlottesville VA. Dr. Winter is the author of The Sleep Solution: Why Your Sleep is Broken and How to Fix It His website: http://www.cvilleneuroandsleep.com/ Photo credit – Jen Fariello Photography Listen to the Podcast: The podcast of this program will be available the Monday after the broadcast date. The show can be streamed online from this site and podcasts can be downloaded for free. CDs may be purchased at any time after broadcast for $9.99. Buy the CD Download the mp3

Show 1159: Do Cold Sores Boost Your Risk for Dementia?

The past few months have produced some fascinating science stories from international sources. We interviewed two scientists in far-flung places to learn more about unexpected ways that microbes interact with us and affect our health. One researcher has developed some unique ways to study the microbiome of our digestive tract. Another is examining whether the herpes viruses that cause cold sores boost your risk of Alzheimer disease. How Does Our Gut Microbiota Respond to Probiotics? Dr. Eran Elinav works at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel. He has been studying the gut microbiota. Each of us carries a collection of microbes as unique as our fingerprints. Studying them isn't easy: not all of the bacteria and viruses in our digestive tracts show up in stool. Dr. Elinav and his colleagues used colonoscopies to collect good samples directly from the large intestine. In addition, they did an experiment to compare the effects of probiotics and placebo. Surprisingly, they found that some proportion of people are resistant to any changes wrought by the probiotics. Others who take probiotics make room for the new species, at least temporarily. What could account for the differences? Dr. Elinav's research group has also considered possible downsides from probiotics. To begin with, one way that people often use probiotics, or "beneficial bacteria," is to counteract the harm that antibiotics can do to our microbiota. How well do they work for that? You may be surprised at what the research showed. Do Cold Sores Boost Your Risk of Alzheimer Disease? Dr. Ruth Itzhaki of the University of Manchester in England has been studying microbes that get into the brain, especially the virus that causes cold sores. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) can travel along nerve cells and enter the brain. For years, Dr. Itzhaki has been collecting data suggesting that infection with HSV1 could contribute to the development of Alzheimer disease. Moreover, a fascinating study from Taiwan suggests that people who take antiviral drugs to suppress HSV1 are much less prone to this form of dementia. Who might benefit from such medications? This Week's Guests: Eran Elinav, MD, PhD, holds the Sir Marc & Lady Tania Feldmann Professorial Chair in Immunology at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel. Dr. Elinav is HHMI & the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation International Research Scholar. He is also a Senior Fellow at the Canadian Institute For Advanced Research (CIFAR). The photo is of Dr. Elinav. His website is: http://www.weizmann.ac.il/immunology/elinav The research we discussed with him was published in Cell, Sep. 6, 2018. https://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674(18)31102-4 https://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674(18)31108-5 Ruth Itzhaki, PhD, is Professor Emeritus of Molecular Neurobiology at the University of Manchester and Honorary Senior Research Fellow at the University of Oxford. You can find her publications in Neurotherapeutics, Jan. 2019 and in Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, Oct. 19, 2018. Listen to the Podcast: The podcast of this program will be available the Monday after the broadcast date. The show can be streamed online from this site and podcasts can be downloaded for free. CDs may be purchased at any time after broadcast for $9.99. Buy the CD Download the free mp3 (Choose mp3 from the pulldown above the "Add to Cart" button.)

Show 1158: Will Hormone Disruptors Affect Your Children's Health?

Over the last several decades, our environment has changed enormously. Comparing a playground in 1962 to the same playground in 2019 gives some sense of how thoroughly we have surrounded ourselves and our children with chemicals that may have profound impacts on the hormones in our bodies. As just one example, bisphenol A found in hard clear plastics and the linings of cans can mimic estrogen to some extent. It might also disrupt the way we maintain our weight in a normal range, possibly contributing to the obesity epidemic. What other hormone disruptors are we being exposed to? DES as an Example of Hormone Disruptors: Some of the changes that researchers have unearthed in response to these endocrine disruptors might actually have trans-generational effects. That seems to be the case for DES, diethylstilbestrol. This estrogen mimic was prescribed to pregnant women for decades to prevent miscarriage. Although it wasn't effective for that purpose, it did have consequences for the children of the women who took it. Scientists are now studying the possibility that the grandchildren may also be affected. Are BPA Substitutes Safer? Public outcry has led companies to replace BPA in certain products. But are the replacements, such as BPS, any safer? That is not clear. How can we identify and avoid potential endocrine disruptors? Will exposure to endocrine disruptors reduce human fertility and make it harder for couples to conceive? Other Hormone Disruptors: Flame retardants, phthalates and chemical treatments to help fabric resist stains are widespread in our current environment. There are ways to minimize your exposure, however. Read the labels on any furniture you buy. Inspect the recycle code numbers on plastic containers before you purchase them and take them home. (Stay away from 1, 3 and 7.) Don't put your own plastic containers in the microwave or the dishwasher. Use glass containers for your food whenever you can. Eventually, consumers will need to pressure manufacturers to get endocrine disruptors out of the products we buy and use. This Week's Guest: Dr. Leonardo Trasande is an internationally renowned leader in children's environmental health and an associate professor in pediatrics, environmental medicine, and population health at New York University. He is also the Director of the Division of Environmental Pediatrics and Vice Chair for Research in the Department of Pediatrics at NYU School of Medicine. Dr. Trasande is the author of Sicker, Fatter, Poorer: The Urgent Threat of Hormone-Disrupting Chemicals to Our Health and Future . . . and What We Can Do About It. Listen to the Podcast: The podcast of this program will be available the Monday after the broadcast date. The show can be streamed online from this site and podcasts can be downloaded for free. CDs may be purchased at any time after broadcast for $9.99. Buy the CD Download the mp3

Show 1157: Why Are You Never Home Alone?

You may think your home is sparkling clean. But even a clean house harbors a host of small creatures that have a fascinating web of interactions with each other and with the humans who live there. What do you know about the ecology of your home? How does the dust that accumulates in the corners before you vacuum affect your health? Are there any advantages to cleaning less often? If you have ever wondered about the fungi in your shower, the bacteria on your soap or the camel crickets hiding out in the basement, call in your questions. Never Home Alone: Dr. Rob Dunn has written about the wilderness thriving in our living spaces in his book, Never Home Alone. He will tell you why you shouldn't overdo on the home hygiene and help you understand how to welcome our unseen guests safely. Join the Conversation: What creatures are lurking in your home? Is your air-conditioning system host to a special sort of ecological system? Call us to learn more about the varieties of life that may be sharing your space. 888-472-3366 between 7 and 8 am EST on Saturday, March 16, 2019. Or send us email: radio@peoplespharmacy.com This Week's Guest: Rob Dunn, PhD, is Professor of Applied Ecology at North Carolina State University. Rob Dunn is the author of several books, including Never Out of Season and The Wildlife of our Bodies. His most recent book is Never Home Alone: From Microbes to Millipedes, Camel Crickets, and Honeybees, the Natural History of Where We Live. http://robdunnlab.com/ Listen to the Podcast: The podcast of this program will be available the Monday after the broadcast date. The show can be streamed online from this site and podcasts can be downloaded for free. CDs may be purchased at any time after broadcast for $9.99. Buy the CD Download the mp3 (Choose mp3 version from the pull-down menu above the Add to Cart button)

Show 1156: How the Microbiota in the Good Gut Takes Care of You

Research over the past few decades has revealed that we humans host a bewildering variety of invisible creatures, our microbiota. We can almost envision the collective genome of all these microbes, the microbiome, as a sort of second genome for human individuals. Unlike our human genome, the microbiome can be altered based on our diet and factors such as whether we have taken antibiotics. The exact balance of microbes in our intestinal ecology varies from one person to another. It may be time to jettison the old notion that all microbes are "germs" that will do us harm and learn how to appreciate microbial diversity. How does our microbiota influence our health? Where Do the Microbes Come From? How does a baby acquire its intestinal inhabitants? How do they change throughout the life cycle? The microbiota has significant effects on behavior, cognition and the immune system, as well as digestive well-being. Since the health of our microbiota is intimately linked to our own health, how should we be caring for it? Can You Reprogram Your Microbiota? Doctors begin to suspect that imbalances in the microbiota may be at the root of serious problems such as inflammatory bowel disease. The classic example of microbiota imbalance causing digestive disease is C diff infection. This diarrheal disease often occurs when many of the gut microbes are wiped out by antibiotic treatment. As a result, Clostridium difficile has an open niche to exploit. Once firmly established, these bacteria can be hard to eradicate. Recently, doctors have resorted to fecal microbiota transplant from healthy donors to treat serious C diff infections. Taking Care of Our Microbiota: How do we take care of our microbiota so it can take good care of us? One approach is to make sure we eat what the microbiota wants. Mostly, that means a high-fiber plant-based diet with relatively little red meat or sugar. In addition, fermented foods can be helpful. When we consume foods with live bacteria such as kombucha, kimchi, kefir, sauerkraut, real pickles or yogurt, we are getting living probiotics that may bolster the microbiota. What else should you be doing? This Week's Guests: Justin Sonnenburg, PhD, is currently an associate professor in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at the Stanford School of Medicine. Erica Sonnenburg, PhD, is currently a senior research scientist at the Stanford University School of Medicine in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology, where she studies the role of diet on the human intestinal microbiota. Drs. Sonnenburg are co-authors of The Good Gut: Taking Control of Your Weight, Your Mood, and Your Long-Term Health. http://sonnenburglab.stanford.edu/ Listen to the Podcast: The podcast of this program will be available the Monday after the broadcast date. The show can be streamed online from this site and podcasts can be downloaded for free. CDs may be purchased at any time after broadcast for $9.99. Buy the CD Download the mp3

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