Spectrum Spectrum features conversations with an eclectic group of fascinating people, some are famous and some are not, but they all have captivating stories.
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Spectrum features conversations with an eclectic group of fascinating people, some are famous and some are not, but they all have captivating stories.More from Spectrum »

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NASA is Reaching Out to Promote and Increase Contracts with Small Businesses

Last year, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) spent nearly $5.5 billion dollars on contracts related to small businesses. Some $2.7 billion or 16.5 percent of total procurements involved direct contracts between small businesses and NASA. Another $2.8 of contracts were subcontracts with small businesses — contracts between small business and large prime contractors servicing NASA. Even though those numbers are impressive, NASA wants to expand its small business contracting even more. NASA officials are traveling across the country to various big and small cities sponsoring programs called "Reaching High – Aerospace Business Matchmaker." The conferences aim to stimulate regional economic growth by trying to match small businesses with either NASA directly or prime contractors doing business with NASA. Glenn Delgado, Associate Administrator of the Office of Small Business Programs at NASA helps coordinate these conferences. He says the conferences give NASA and other groups the opportunity to educate small business owners on some of the requirements and technicalities of doing business with NASA or a NASA prime contractor. On the second day of each conference, he notes, small business owners have the opportunity to meet one-on-one with NASA officials and representatives of prime contractors to see if there is a compatible match. NASA also partners with Procurement Technical Assistance Centers (PTAC) in a particular geographical area to help sponsor the conferences. Business opportunities are available in providing goods and services in mechanical and electrical engineering, IT infrastructure services, building maintenance, medical services, office supplies and equipment, office administrative services, testing laboratories, apparel, security and a large variety of other industries. For more information, visit http://aerospacematchmaker.com.

NASA is Reaching Out to Promote and Increase Contracts with Small Businesses

Current "Hyper-Racial" Culture is Covered Full-time by AP Reporter Errin Whack

In November 2017, Errin Whack was appointed to be the Race and Ethnicity Writer for the Associated Press. She works closely with the Race and Ethnicity team dedicated to covering "race, culture and politics" in a changing and volatile America. The Associated Press says it has developed a team that can focus on the complicated issues of race and provide rapid responses to racial issues developing across the country. "America is currently hyper-racial," Whack says. She thinks, therefore, that stories about race are more important now than ever. "The election of President Obama caused a huge racial backlash that people didn't pay enough attention to at the time," Whack adds. Some people felt threatened by the racial progress of having a black President and it was those feelings of fear and unrest that President Trump tapped into during his 2016 election, according to Whack. Trump fanned the flames of fear during his "Birther Movement" under President Obama and those fears continued and were magnified during the Trump presidential campaign. We are now seeing the results of that fear evidencing itself in many ways, Whack adds. Whack is not a novice at covering racial matters. She started her journalism career writing for a black newspaper in her hometown of Atlanta. Since then, she has worked for the "Washington Post, "The Orlando Sentinel", and the "Los Angeles Times". Her worked also has been featured by NBC News, NPR, Politico Magazine, Time.com, BuzzFeed, Fusion, The Guardian, and City Lab. Whack was named the Philadelphia Association of Black Journalists' 2016 Print Journalist of the Year. She also was tapped as the Emerging Journalist of the Year by the National Association of Black Journalists and Print Journalist of the Year by the Atlanta Press Club.

Current "Hyper-Racial" Culture is Covered Full-time by AP Reporter Errin Whack

Get a View from Behind-the-Camera in Cable & Network News: Role of Producer

A producer works behind-the-scenes and in the control room helping to write and direct the way the news is presented by the talent. It is an important and vital role to the delivery of broadcast news but it's a role that is little understood. A producer helps gathers the news, write it and sits in the control room advising the talent during the news delivery. A producer and the news anchor must have a symbiotic relationship. It is like an intense plutonic professional relationship, according to Katie Hinman, an executive producer of special programming at CNN. She says that they often share the same world view but they sometimes bicker like an "old married couple." If the chemistry is right then there is a closeness that develops – a trusting relationship. The producer can be the voice in the news anchors ear to steer him/her in the right direction or to avoid misstatements or inaccuracies. Before her new assignment, Hinman had that close professional relationship with Jake Tapper of CNN. Both had worked together previously at ABC and then both moved to CNN. Hinman was the executive producer and helped launch Tapper's Sunday show "State of the Union with Jake Tapper." She also was the supervising producer for Tapper's daily CNN show, "The Lead." Prior to joining CNN five years ago, Hinman spent 10 years at ABC News as a producer for "Nightline." She claims that good writing is the fundamental building block of all good journalism and she says that over her career she has learned to write in the "voice" of whomever will be delivering that report. She also says that she must assure the talent that she is writing in a way that everything she writes is 100 percent accurate. Hinman has received two Emmys for her work and an Overseas Press Club Award. She also has received the prestigious Edward R. Murrow Award and a Peabody Award. Hinman is a 2003 graduate of the E. W. Scripps School of Journalism at Ohio University. While an undergraduate student, she worked at WOUB Public Media and interned at Nightline after her sophomore year. She also was a Cutler Scholar.

Get a View from Behind-the-Camera in Cable & Network News: Role of Producer

Inside the Mind of the Prize-Winning Editorial Cartoonist Jack Ohman

Editorial cartoonists, in the heyday of newspapers, were plentiful. Now the group is down to only 50 nationwide and that number is being threatened by slow extinction. One of the survivors, however, is prize winning cartoonist, columnist, editor and author Jack Ohman of the "Sacramento Bee. " Currently, his cartoons are syndicated by The Washington Post Writers Group. Previously, his work appeared in 200 newspapers through Tribune Content Agency, and he was, at age 19, the youngest editorial cartoonist ever nationally syndicated. Ohman also worked for "The Columbus Dispatch," the "Detroit Free Press" and "The Oregonian." He won the 2016 Pulitzer Prize for editorial cartooning and was a Pulitzer finalist in 2012 for the "Oregonian" in Portland. Jack talks about the creative process of being a political cartoonist, some of the restrictions and some of the dangers of his profession. Over his long professional career, he has complete about 13,000 finished cartoons – not counting the thousands of sketches and ideas in progress. He gives us a view of how he goes about formulating a cartoon from the germ of the idea that starts the process to the finished product. The subject is central to the success of a cartoon, along with the pithy way of satirizing the situation. The art is secondary to a cartoons success, according to Ohman. He also notes that there are self-restrictions and self-editing placed on cartoonists based upon each artist's sense of ethics and good taste. Some topics or people are "off-limits" to Ohman but he self-edits those ideas. He does not expect his paper to censor his opinions. Recently, however, "Pittsburgh Post-Gazette" editorial cartoonist Rob Rogers reportedly was fired for being too critical of President Trump and his administration. Ohman also finds it is not difficult to lampoon Washington even from as far away as Sacramento. "Washington is just television now," Ohman says. He thinks you can cover it well from anywhere. Ohman also talks about his creative foray into creating 3-D cartoons for Virtual Reality for the McClatchy Company, owner of some 29 daily newspapers in 14 states. In addition to the Pulitzer, Ohman has won the Robert F. Kennedy Journalism Award, the Society of Professional Journalists Sigma Delta Chi Award, the SDX Mark of Excellence Award, the National Headliner Award, the Overseas Press Club Award, the Scripps Howard Foundation Award and two first place Best of the West Awards. Ohman also is the winner of "The Minnesota Daily Harrison E. Salisbury Distinguished Alumni Award."

Medical School Curriculum is Revolutionized to Keep Pace with Today's Living

Since 2014, the faculty and staff of the Ohio University Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine have been developing a new medical school curriculum called the "Pathways to Health and Wellness Curriculum." Its design is revolutionary and may lead the way for other medical schools to follow. Come August, gone will be the big auditorium lectures. Instead, greater emphasis will be placed on individual and independent studies through the use of a "flipped classroom approach." "Students will learn interactively through working collaboratively on 16 weeklong patient cases per semester. Students will work in teams along with appropriate faculty," says Dr. Kenneth Johnson, the executive dean of the Heritage College and the chief medical affairs officer for Ohio University. Students will prepare for classroom learning sessions through self-directed study including access to recorded mini-lecture and modules," explains Dr. Jody Gerome, the new associate dean of curriculum. "The different aspects of medicine, clinical, biomedical, and social, are woven naturally into patient cases, rather than taught as separate academic silos," Dr. Gerome adds. Likewise, the program will examine the students' knowledge more often than the formerly once-a-semester exam. Tests will be given more frequently to make sure the student is keeping up and absorbing the material that is required. During each semester, students and faculty both will have "protected time" for maintaining their own personal wellness and each student will be assigned a faculty mentor for all four years of study. The health and wellness of the patients and the physicians both are in balance under this new plan, says Dr. Johnson. "The first two years of study will be divided into four 16 week semesters covering wellness, acute illness, chronic illness and return to wellness," says Dr. Gerome. "The changes we are making are designed to convey training in a way that is more aligned with today's evolving best practices in care delivery, to improve the care provided to our patients and communities and for formalize our commitment to the personal wellness of our students during medical school and beyond," Dr. Johnson explains. "Health care has to change, and the college needs to adapt its curriculum so it can continue to train doctors who can not only thrive in the changing health care environment, but help lead that changes to improve the quality of care to our patients and communities." Dr. Johnson has been dean of the Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine since 2012. Dr. Gerome is a 2005 alumna of the college. She is a practicing physician and an associate professor of obstetrics and gynecology.

Medical School Curriculum is Revolutionized to Keep Pace with Today's Living

Was N. Korean Summit All Glitz and No Substance? — TIME Reporter Analyzes

The meeting in Singapore between President Donald Trump and N. Korean leader Kim Jong Un was most assuredly historic. It was the first time that a N. Korean leader had met face-to-face with a sitting U.S. President. But, was the meeting substantive and did it produce any lasting results? That is the question politicians, journalists, and analysts are asking as President Trump wings his way back to Washington. The first reviews are tepid, according to TIME Washington correspondent Philip Elliott, and the President might not get the fanfare that he wants and expects. The wait-and-see attitude is even pervasive with some members of Trump's own party like Sen. Lindsey Graham. He said that this is a start but a long way from any "agreement" with North Korea to denuclearize the Korean peninsula, according to the veteran Senator. Elliott in a conversation with the Spectrum podcast also discusses the optics of the summit and its political viability in the mid-term elections in November. He contrasted the praise given to Kim Jong Un by Trump and other administrative officials on the heels of disparaging remarks by Pres. Trump and others toward U.S. allies like Prime Minister Justin Trudeau of Canada. Trump was openly hostile toward the G-7 allies and their leaders, says Elliott, while saying it was an "honor" to meet with Kim, calling him a "great leader." The contrasts in Presidential styles between historic allies and an adversary were noted all across Washington, Elliott adds. In his conversation, Elliott also talks about the onslaught of attacks on Special Counsel Robert Mueller by a quartet of GOP Congressmen, outside-counsel Rudy Giuliani, FOX News hosts and the President himself. Elliott notes that the "War against Mueller" is damaging the investigation's standing with the general public. This may have long-term impacts on any potential Congressional actions against Trump. Finally, Elliott gives Spectrum listeners insight on who's "IN" and who's "OUT" at the White House – the revolving door of political advisors and staffers. Before joining TIME, Elliott spent a decade covering politics, campaign finance, education and the White House for the Associated Press.

Mexico & USA are Coming Together Not Apart says 'Vanishing Frontiers' Author

As we feel racial tension from the White House and hear immigration horror stories from President Donald Trump's Administration, it is refreshing to have a true scholar publish a book that is well researched and has an optimistic slant on the same issues. That is what Dr. Andrew Selee, president of the Migration Policy Institute and former executive vice-president of the Wilson Center has done in his new book: "Vanishing Frontiers: The Forces Driving Mexico and the United States Together." Dr. Selee concludes that our two cultures have entwined together as well as our economies and that both countries rely on trade agreements such as NAFTA for mutual growth and dependencies. We are involved in a number of manufacturing projects together as well as agricultural trade. He says tariffs and potential trade wars will only blow-up the progress that has been made. He notes that Mexican immigration to the United States is down but that other Central and South American countries are funneling people to the USA through Mexico. He states, however, that the Mexican government is bulking up its own immigration enforcement measures to discourage wholesale immigration attempts to the U.S. Dr. Selee laments that children are now being separated from parents who are attempting to enter the country by less than legal means. He thinks this is not what was intended by Congressional legislation or policies of our country. He also notes that the "Dreamers" – those children born in the United States to illegal aliens – are still in limbo since the President and Congress cannot agree on a course of action to protect them. Dreamer legislation is being held hostage by the demands of the President for money to build a wall along the Mexican border. Dr. Selee notes that about one-third of the wall has already been built by other administrations and the remaining portions promoted by Trump are either unneeded or purely symbolic. Instead of walls, Selee promotes international cooperation. He describes how San Diego and Tijuana have worked together to develop a number of joint projects including an international airport located just across the Mexican border. Dr. Selee also states that Mexican immigrants have lower crime rates than other American groups and they have an entrepreneurial spirit. They are two times more like to start their own businesses than other groups – including American citizens, says Selee.

Mexico & USA are Coming Together Not Apart says 'Vanishing Frontiers' Author

American Politics Through a Camera Lens: Viewpoint of Former NYT Photographer

For 25 years, Stephen Crowley was one of two "New York Times" (NYT) photographers stationed in Washington to cover the White House, the President, and Congress. Being a politically-minded guy since childhood, Crowley says that covering politics was never boring and in fact, it often was exciting. He says that covering politics is a lot like shooting athletic events...there are always surprises, successes and failures. There are stars and also-rans. Each personality is different and it reflects in the pictures of them, he notes. For example, he says Obama often attempted to appear thoughtful and Lincoln-like when cameras were around while photographing President Donald Trump is like capturing a television variety show host. He also notes that Sen. Minority Leader Chuck Schumer can hear a camera go off from 20 yards away and quickly makes his reading glasses disappear before the second frame is shot. He says that part of his job as a photographer is to be able to "quickly organize chaos" into some type of coherent image that tells a story truthfully and accurately. Crowley, throughout his career, has traveled the world on assignments and has taken photographs in some 40 different countries. He has captured images of war, poverty, and devastation. His credo, however, in such horrendous situations, is "don't victimize the victim." He is careful to preserve the humanity and dignity of the person being photographed regardless of the situation. In 2002, Crowley was named the Photographer of the Year by the White House News Photographers Association. He also was part of Pulitzer Prize winning teams at the NYT in 2001 and 2002 for "How Race is Lived in America" and his work during the war in Afghanistan. Before arriving at the NYT, Crowley worked at "The Palm Beach Post," the "Miami Herald" and the "Washington Times." He has had private showings of his work at the Library of Congress, the National Geographic Society and the Corcoran Art Museum in Washington, D.C. The American Photo Magazine included Crowley in its list of the 100 Most Important People in Photography in 2005.

American Politics Through a Camera Lens: Viewpoint of Former NYT Photographer

Cesarean Sections Account for One-Third of the Baby Deliveries in the USA

Medical historian Jacqueline H. Wolf, a professor at Ohio University, has just authored a new book tracing the history of the use of Cesarean Section baby deliveries in the United States noting a definite upward trend in the 21st Century. The book, "Cesarean Section: An American History of Risk, Technology, and Consequence," explores the history of the C-Section from the 19th century until today. Wolf tells Spectrum podcast that Cesarean births rose in the United States by 455 percent from 4.5 percent to 25 percent for the period between 1965 and 1987. The growth has continued and now the rate for the procedure is one-third of all American births – one of every three. This is twice what is recommended by the World Health Organization. Although sometimes a C-Section is necessary for the welfare of the baby or the mother, too often it is used as a matter of convenience, according to Wolf. She details many of the risks associated with Cesarean deliveries compared to vaginal births and according to many, they are over-used. The book has received impressive reviews. Recently Slate.com called the book "Absorbing," "Plainly excellent," and said "Its vividness is unrivaled." Jennifer Grayson, author of "Unlatched: The Evolution of Breastfeeding and the Making of a Controversy" said: "With meticulous research and sweeping insight, Jacqueline Wolf unfolds the unfathomable: how, over the course of a mere century, human beings normalized surgery as the means of bringing babies into the world. 'Cesarean Section' is an urgent wake-up call." This is Wolf's third book. She already has written "Don't Kill Your Baby: Public Health and the Decline of Breastfeeding in the 19th and 20th Centuries" and "Deliver Me from Pain: Anesthesia and Birth in American." This book is published by Johns Hopkins University Press.

Cesarean Sections Account for One-Third of the Baby Deliveries in the USA

The Tangled Trump-Russia Web Ensnares as Attorney Cohen's Story Unfolds

As if the tangled and muddled web of potential Russian collusion and conspiracy with Americans to interfere in the 2016 Presidential Election was not confusing enough, we now have the activities of President Trump's former attorney and "fixer" Michael Cohen to further complicate matters. Philip Ewing, security editor for National Public Radio (NPR) in Washington, has been following the Cohen situation as it unfolds. He notes there are three main elements. First, what documents should be turned over to federal agents and secondly, what roll, if any, did Cohen play in the Russia collusion matter and thirdly, did Cohen break any laws in his representation of major global corporations by promising access to the Trump Administration? Ewing tries to break the events down to understandable terms for the average person. He shares with us his insights and expertise. In early April 2018, the FBI executed a court-ordered search warrant on Cohen's office, his home, and his hotel. Multiple records and electronic devices were seized. Federal Judge Kimba Wood has appointed a former judge to do a preliminary examination of these documents to determine which ones should be turned over to federal prosecutors and which should be sealed under the theory of "attorney-client" privilege. These documents could be potential evidence against Michael Cohen is an array of possible federal criminal charges and could possibly link the President and others to nefarious activities. Cohen also has been linked to various significant foreign notables who might be involved in potential collusion regarding the election. He either has been seen meeting with them or records indicate he has received substantial amounts of money from them, says Ewing. Finally, Michael Avenatti, the attorney for Stormy Daniels (a woman who claims to have had an affair with Donald Trump), is trying to break a non-disclosure agreement so that his client can speak openly of her relationship with the President. He also has sued Michael Cohen and President Trump for defamation for alleged "untruths" that they have said against his client. Recently, Avenatti has released a report indicating that Cohen has received large sums of money from various global corporations and a Russian oligarch for some type of access to the President or influence over him. These money transfers might open Cohen and others to additional criminal liabilities. Meanwhile, the "Washington Post" reports that President Trump is fixated on the raid on Cohen's properties and speaks negatively of it some 20 times a day. No one, currently knows, why the President is so concerned. Ewing discusses some possibilities with the Spectrum podcast. He also describes the chasm between the painstakingly methodical approach of Special Counsel Robert Mueller and the political/public relations frenzy being stirred up by President Trump and his attorney Rudy Giuliani. Ewing says some people will always believe Mueller's investigation is a "witch hunt" regardless of facts proven in a court of law. Ewing is a veteran Washington reporter covering primarily security and military issues throughout his career. He is a graduate of the Scripps College of Communication at Ohio University and the E. W. Scripps School of Journalism.

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