The Academic Minute The Academic Minute features researchers from colleges and universities around the world, keeping listeners abreast of what's new and exciting in the academy and of all the ways academic research contributes to solving the world's toughest problems and to serving the public good.

The Academic Minute

From Northeast Public Radio

The Academic Minute features researchers from colleges and universities around the world, keeping listeners abreast of what's new and exciting in the academy and of all the ways academic research contributes to solving the world's toughest problems and to serving the public good.

Most Recent Episodes

Kalenda Eaton, Arcadia University – Remembering Black Freedom in the Western Hemisphere

On Arcadia University Week: Each community reflects on the freedom of enslaved people differently. Kalenda Eaton, associate professor of English, examines how different countries celebrate and reflect. Dr. Eaton is the current director of the English Graduate Program. Additionally, she has served as a Faculty Senator, and as a member of the: Strategic Planning Steering Committee, Academics Committee, India Initiative Task Force, Promotion and Tenure Committee, and as a faculty representative on the International Programs/College of Global Studies subcommittee of the Board of Trustees from 2012-2016. She was also Director of Global Learning from 2014-2016. With a cohort of faculty at the university, she helped institute the academic minor in Pan-African studies and create Arcadia's Pan African Studies Collective (PASC). Outside the university, Dr. Eaton is a frequent external reviewer for domestic and international academic journals and grant-funding foundations. She is a member and/or officer on several boards ranging from Editorial and Advisory, to Corporate. She has been a member of a Middle States Commission on Higher Education (MSCHE) site visit team and is a MSCHE trained evaluator. Also, Dr. Eaton frequently serves as a resource faculty member and mentor with the Social Science Research Council-Mellon Mays Graduate Initiatives Program. Remembering Black Freedom in the Western Hemisphere https://academicminute.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/02-15-18-Arcadia-Remembering-Black-Freedom-in-the-Western-Hemisphere.mp3 2020 will mark the fifth year of the United Nations declared "Decade for African Descendants." Large percentages of the descendants living in the western hemisphere are linked by legacies of bondage. As such, there is also great debate on the emphasis we should place on the history of slavery in the 21st century. In many communities the connection between the distant past and the present is acknowledged annually in displays of cultural nationalism and patriotism. We ask: what does it mean to Commemorate Freedom in the 21st century? Across the Western Hemisphere the Emancipation of slavery is recognized differently. In the United States, June 19, 1865 was the date enslaved Texans learned they had been freed by the Emancipation Proclamation. Today, in honor of that moment, a series of "Juneteenth" festivals are held in parks, community centers, museums, and churches. These events, while celebratory, are often deeply reflective. Crowds are encouraged to "never forget" as they listen to guiding words about the importance of the past and its impact on the future. Neighboring countries in the Caribbean, South America, and Canada share the date of August 1, 1834, which marks when the British outlawed enslavement in its colonies. Freedom celebrations range from neighborhood street festivals and city-wide parades to reenactments and town hall meetings. Historical knowledge of one's country and culture is imperative in forging national identity necessary for any society to advance. Emancipation commemorations challenge us to consider if the heart of true liberation is in the memories we piece together.

Kalenda Eaton, Arcadia University – Remembering Black Freedom in the Western Hemisphere

Warren Haffar, Arcadia University – Mental Mapping in Divided Societies

On Arcadia University Week: Removing physical barriers doesn't always alleviate social ones. Warren Haffar, professor of historical and political studies, studies shared spaces in the divided capital of Cyprus. Warren Haffar is Director of the International Peace and Conflict Resolution MA Program. He received his Ph.D. and MA in Conflict Analysis and Peace Science from the University of Pennsylvania in 1996, and his BS in Political Science from the University of Utah in 1990. In his 15 years at Arcadia he's developed expertise in international development and conflict resolution, teaching graduate and undergraduate field study courses in East and West Africa, Latin America, Northern Ireland, Cyprus and South Korea. He came to Arcadia in 2000 from the Project on Ethnic Relations in Princeton, an NGO that conducts programs of high-level intervention and serves as a neutral mediator to prevent ethnic conflict in Central and Eastern Europe, the Balkans and the former Soviet Union. He is a certified mediator and has practitioner experience developing consensus based sustainable development strategies for the state of Pennsylvania. He has been active administratively while at Arcadia, being elected to faculty council and the University's promotion and tenure committee. He co-led a task force that redesigned the university general education requirements, passed by faculty with a 90% vote. He received a grant from the President's office to launch the Center for Peace Research in Tanzania. As Director of the International Peace and Conflict Resolution program for 13 years, he created dual degree programs with International Public Health, Trauma Counseling Program and Graduate School of Education. Mental Mapping in Divided Societies https://academicminute.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/02-14-18-Arcadia-Mental-Mapping-in-Divided-Societies.mp3 Conflict resolution often comes down to finding ways to change the habits of mind that prevent us from knowing others in close proximity. Formed by our experience and memories, mental maps help us navigate our physical environment, subconsciously shaping the choices we make, from the bus stops we choose, the routes we walk, and who we interact with in our daily routines. In short, mental maps serve as the basis for much of our everyday behavior and the habits we have that influence our behavior. Nicosia, the capital city of the Republic of Cyprus, has the distinction of being the last officially divided capitals in the world, with a United Nations buffer zone dividing residents between the recognized Republic of Cyprus and the unrecognized Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. The buffer zone keeps residents of the south and the north in different worlds with check points controlling movement between the two sides. This research examines the impact of this division, exploring how perceptions influence spatial representations of the city and the awareness each side has of the other. Residents were asked to draw maps to illustrate their spatial awareness of the city. Results showed that despite the opening of UN check points in 2003, Nicosia's residents remain divided in their perceptions of their common urban landscape, suggesting that shared space is often anything but, and that people living in close proximity often live worlds apart, both in mind and in daily routines. Efforts to bring people together involve much more than the removal of physical barriers and also need to address changing the habits of mind that keep people habituated to division, even in shared space. This applies not just to cities like Nicosia with formal walls, but to almost all cities where people live side by side but in proximate isolation.

Warren Haffar, Arcadia University – Mental Mapping in Divided Societies

Bruce Campbell, Arcadia University – Music, Social Justice and Leadership

On Arcadia University Week: Want to become a better leader? Put social justice in your headphones. Bruce Campbell, Jr., associate professor in the school of education, examines how a soundtrack can help you progress toward leadership. Bruce Campbell Jr., Ph.D. is an Associate Professor in the School of Education at Arcadia University in suburban Philadelphia. He is also the Director of the Educational Leadership Masters and Supervisory Certification programs. Dr. Campbell holds a doctorate in Educational Leadership and Learning Technologies from Drexel University and a master degree in Urban Education from Temple University. Prior to coming to Arcadia University, his career focused on school improvement and program evaluation. As a "Distinguished Educator" for the Pennsylvania Department of Education, Dr. Campbell consulted with school districts in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Dr. Campbell has also worked at education research firms and non-profit organizations including Research For Better Schools, and the Philadelphia Education Fund. Dr. Campbell's work with these education organizations along with his employment at the United States Department of Education Office of Civil Rights, positioned him on the frontline of working with stakeholders in the education community. Dr. Campbell has been able to take his knowledge, experience and skill to higher education as he trains the next generation of educational leaders. Throughout his career, Dr. Campbell has focused on embedding relevant issues of diversity into his practice, scholarship, and service. He highlights experiences of underrepresented groups so that professionals and institutions can serve these communities more effectively. Dr. Campbell teaches courses in educational leadership, organizational change, program evaluation, urban education, qualitative research methods, cultural competency and international musicology. Music, Social Justice and Leadership https://academicminute.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/02-13-18-Arcadia-Music-Social-Justice-and-Leadership.mp3 Music has a long legacy of responding to social inequalities. Creating music can act as a weapon for social justice, a tactic enabling artists to use their talents and platform to combat injustice. But what about the listener? Especially, leaders that carry the torch of social justice? My research examines the connection between leadership and social justice through the lens of music. I argue that using different forms of capital under the theoretical framework of Community Cultural Wealth can empower leaders. This framework was originally designed as a critical race theory to capture the talents, strengths and experiences that students of color brought with them to their college environment. The Community Cultural Wealth framework represents ways to understand how students of color access and experience college from a strengths-based perspective. I have applied this framework to the field of leadership. I have found that there is a strong connection between the forms of capital within the framework and the inspiration leaders obtain from social justice driven music. The six different forms of capital in this framework are; Aspirational, Familial, Resistant, Linguistic, Navigational, and Social. When I interviewed leaders about what music inspires them to do their line of work, the answers varied. They cover an array of musical genres and crossed many decades. My research has shown a correlation between the message in the music that leaders selected and the characteristics of leadership styles could be associated to at least one, if not all of the six forms of cultural capital. So what music is the soundtrack of your work as a leader?

Bruce Campbell, Arcadia University – Music, Social Justice and Leadership

Aroline Hanson, Arcadia University – Bringing Back Brunca

On Arcadia University Week: Extinct languages can be brought back from the dead. Aroline Hanson, assistant professor of modern languages and cultures, explores this process in Central America. Dr. Aroline Seibert Hanson earned her Ph.D. in Spanish and Language Science at the Pennsylvania State University. She is a tenured Assistant Professor of Spanish and Linguistics at Arcadia University outside of Philadelphia, PA. Her research is in Second Language Acquisition with a focus on Motivation and Language Processing. Seibert Hanson's work has been published in Language Learning, the Canadian Journal for Applied Linguistics, Computer-Assisted Language Learning, and Studies in Hispanic and Lusophone Linguistics. Her most recent work is on the indigenous languages of Costa Rica, aiding in the language documentation and revitalization efforts by the Brunca people. Bringing Back Brunca https://academicminute.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/02-12-18-Arcadia-Bringing-Back-Brunca.mp3 According to UNESCO, approximately 600 languages have disappeared in the last century, with one dying every two weeks. The indigenous language of Brunca, from present day Boruca in Costa Rica, lost its last native speaker this past April. However, in 2010, linguists had already declared Brunca to be extinct, basing their assessment on the number of living fluent speakers. Although research from two decades ago shows Brunca losing ground, through recent field research, I've documented continuing efforts to bring back the language. While it is true that the majority of the elders who speak Brunca have passed, some of the next generation are invested in bringing back the language. Doña Celedina Maroto, the granddaughter of the documenter and linguist Espíritu Santo Maroto, lives in neighboring Curré. When asked if she speaks Brunca, Maroto rattled off a few phrases proudly, saying that her children, all adults now, also speak Brunca. Although now retired, Maroto taught Brunca for years in the schools and is still working to bring the language back through community workshops, two of which occurred this past October and were well attended. Leila Garro Valverde has offered traditional Brunca cooking classes and written and published a cookbook with Brunca recipes, which has received little recognition. She remarked that if she did not do this vital work, others may not, and then the information and language would be lost. Garro Valverde has also brought together younger Brunca people to create an interactive map with place names in Brunca and GPS coordinates to make the places discoverable by later generations. These are just two examples of how the community is bringing Brunca back. These efforts contribute to the growing and diverse field of language revitalization.

Aroline Hanson, Arcadia University – Bringing Back Brunca

Jill Pederson, Arcadia University – Understanding Authorship in Leonardo Da Vinci's Salvator Mundi

On Arcadia University Week: Are some famous paintings the work of multiple hands? Jill Pederson, associate professor of art history, examines whether some of da Vinci's work was a collaborative effort. Jill Pederson is Associate Professor of Art History at Arcadia University, specializing in European art with an emphasis on Italian painting, sculpture, and graphic work from the fourteenth through seventeenth centuries. Her research focuses on the intersection of visual, literary, and intellectual culture in northern Italy. Dr. Pederson is completing a book manuscript on Leonardo da Vinci and his involvement in the Academia Leonardi Vinci. The book deepens our understanding of the Renaissance master by providing contextualization for his first Milanese period (c.1482-1499). Although Leonardo has long been cast as an artistic anomaly, the study resituates him within a specific scholarly network that helped to shape his own visual idiom. By suggesting that Leonardo derived inspiration from a wider group of artists, poets, and scientists, the book challenges prevailing ideas about Leonardo's universal genius and contributes to a more complex understanding of an artist who influenced conceptions of creative practice for generations to come. Understanding Authorship in Leonardo Da Vinci's Salvator Mundi https://academicminute.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/02-11-18-Arcadia-Understanding-Authorship-in-Leonardos-Salvator-Mundi.mp3 On November 15, 2017, a painting featuring a frontal representation of Christ in benediction holding a rock crystal orb, known as the Salvator Mundi, sold at auction for $450.3 million. While this record sum shocked the art world, it was largely justified by the painting's attribution to Leonardo da Vinci. Yet, how can we be certain that the painting actually comes from the Renaissance master's hand? Art historians have long known of a Salvator Mundi painting by Leonardo based largely on a 1650 etching thought to be a copy of his lost original. However, the subject was common in early modern Italy, and this is not the first version attributed to Leonardo. Without firm documentation, art historians must rely on visual evidence to determine an author of a painting. Visually, questions arise about Leonardo's sole execution of the Salvator Mundi. Although technical interventions have done much to restore the poor condition of the work, some areas of weakness or inconsistency remain. For instance, the drapery folds in Christ's robe appear largely undifferentiated on his left side. His ringlets fall in schematic curls, rather than more fluid locks. Most obviously, the left hand and orb appear awkward and partially truncated. These discrepancies may have to do with the hybrid nature of the picture. In fact, Leonardo's works in his mid-to late career were frequently finished by his pupils or assistants. Lombard artists often worked in teams, and Leonardo's workshop was no exception, with artists like Giovanni Antonio Boltraffio often completing their teacher's work. In attributing the Salvator Mundi, we must consider that paintings in Leonardo's circle often show evidence of more than one hand. This circumstance in no way undermines the historical value of the work, but rather indicates that we still have much to learn about the collaborative working methods of Italian Renaissance painters.

Jill Pederson, Arcadia University – Understanding Authorship in Leonardo Da Vinci's Salvator Mundi

Piero Gardinali, Florida International University – Simulating the Deepwater Horizon Oil S...

It turns out you can simulate an oil spill in the lab. Piero Gardinali, professor in the department of chemistry and biochemistry at Florida International University, describes how this was done and what was learned. Piero Gardinali is the director of the Southeast Environmental Research Center within Florida International University's Institute of Water and Environment, dedicated to addressing water and environmental issues impacting the planet. Gardinali studies the chemistry of the oceans and its creatures. His research interests include the transport of organic pollutants in marine ecosystems, the analytical chemistry of legacy and emerging organic contaminants, and the biological markers of chemical exposure. Simulating the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Lab https://academicminute.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/02-08-19-FIU-Simulating-The-Deepwater-Horizon-Oil-Spill-In-The-Lab.mp3 The 2010 explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig released 134 million gallons of oil into the Gulf of Mexico. It was one of the largest oil spills in history — and one of the most studied. At least 1,300 miles of shoreline were affected by the oil — that's more than the distance of taking a drive from New Orleans to New York City. But studying what happened to the oil deep below the surface and in such a large area is challenging. Could the spill and its impact be replicated in the lab? Our team of researchers did just that. We were the first to best simulate the conditions of the aftermath of the spill in a controlled laboratory environment. This allowed us to understand just how the oil-degrading bacteria from the original spill region behaved and how they chewed up the crude oil. Our study shows that microorganisms are prepared to respond to oil spills. They can largely biodegrade crude oil components left behind after a spill. A microorganism will biodegrade, or eat, oil components that would otherwise harm the ocean ecosystem, including species living in it. We now know that microbial communities act as a "natural defense system" for our ocean environments, allowing them to react during spills — even unprecedented ones like the Deepwater Horizon. As drilling continues in the search for oil beneath our oceans, it is important to understand how nature behaves and use this information to find solutions to any potential accidents these activities may cause. By better understanding how microorganisms biodegrade oil, we can better understand what is happening beneath the surface of the sea and be prepared to mitigate impacts.

Piero Gardinali, Florida International University – Simulating the Deepwater Horizon Oil S...

Kyle Quinn, University of Arkansas – Chronic Skin Wounds

Wavelengths of light could help heal chronic wounds. Kyle Quinn, assistant professor in the department of biomedical engineering at the University of Arkansas, discusses this non-invasive technique. Dr. Quinn received his B.S. degree in Biomedical Engineering from the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 2004. He earned his Ph.D in Bioengineering in 2010 from the University of Pennsylvania under the mentorship of Dr. Beth Winkelstein. He then joined the Department of Biomedical Engineering at Tufts University as a postdoctoral scholar in Dr. Irene Georgakoudi's group. As a postdoc, he was awarded a Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award and an NIH Pathway to Independence Award (K99/R00). In September 2015, he joined the Department of Biomedical Engineering at the University of Arkansas, where he has secured over $2.5M in federal grant funding to develop advanced imaging methods for wound healing applications. Chronic Skin Wounds https://academicminute.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/02-07-19-Arkansas-Chronic-Skin-Wounds.mp3 Skin wound healing is a complex, multi-step process in which different kinds of cells with unique metabolic demands must coordinate with each other to repair damaged tissue. When a group of cells does not respond as expected in this coordinated dance, healing can fail to progress, resulting in a chronic wound. Diabetic foot ulcers are a particularly costly and deadly form of chronic wounds. However, there are few quantitative measures available in the clinic to detect and characterize these ulcers. Our lab has identified a non-invasive biomarker of wound healing by exploiting the natural fluorescence of cells. Using the correct wavelengths of light, we can detect and isolate weak fluorescent signals from NADH and FAD, two enzyme cofactors involved in cellular metabolism. Through multiphoton microscopy, we can collect high-resolution 3D maps of an optical redox ratio of NADH and FAD autofluorescence in skin. Because this technique does not require fluorescent dyes or destructive tissue biopsies, we can monitor wound metabolism non-invasively in live mice over time. Using this microscopy technique, we monitored diabetic and control mice over 10 days after wounding and identified dynamic changes in the metabolism of the outer layer of skin during the healing process. The optical redox ratio of the epithelium decreased as cells grew and divided and then increased as the cells began migrating over the wound. Interestingly, diabetic wounds demonstrated a lower redox ratio 10 days after wounding, which is consistent with their delayed wound closure. In the future, we hope to combine both structural and metabolic data available through multiphoton microscopy to provide a suite of biomarkers to help guide wound treatment.

Kyle Quinn, University of Arkansas – Chronic Skin Wounds

Andrea Lang, University at Albany – The Polar Vortex

It's time again for the polar vortex to invade the U.S. and the news. Andrea Lang, assistant professor of atmospheric and environmental sciences at the University at Albany, explores what the polar vortex is and why it keeps making us bundle up during the winter months. Andrea Lopez Lang is an assistant professor in the Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences Department at the University at Albany, State University of New York. She teaches courses on atmospheric dynamics as well as introductory courses to weather and climate. Her research interests center on cool-season phenomena ranging from winter storms to variability of the polar vortex. Currently, she serves in the leadership group of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Task Force for Subseasonal–to–Seasonal Prediction. Andrea received her PhD in Atmospheric and Oceanic Science from the University of Wisconsin–Madison. What Is The Polar Vortex? https://academicminute.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/01-02-18-Albany-What-Is-The-Polar-Vortex.mp3 "The Polar Vortex barrels across the U.S." and "Polar Vortex to hit the Northeast" were prominent headlines from December 2013. Images of commuters bundled in layers avoiding all-time record low temperatures and reporters battling the elements filled the news cycles. These news stories left many wondering—what is the polar vortex? The polar vortex is not a newly discovered phenomenon. Every winter as the polar region cools in the long dark nights, a polar vortex forms in the northern hemisphere. As this very cold air mass develops over the pole, a jet stream of strong eastward blowing winds forms on the flanks of that cold air in a layer from about 5 to 40 km (3-25 miles) above Earth's surface. In general, this combination of cold air and jet stream define the polar vortex. A polar vortex develops every year during the winter months in the southern hemisphere as well, and polar vortex–like phenomena have also been observed on other planets, including Saturn and Mars. From a scientific perspective, a polar vortex is a dynamically robust feature that has several components, one well above Earth's surface—in the stratosphere, and another that is directly associated with the news worthy cold air outbreaks—located in the region known as the troposphere. In an average northern hemisphere winter, the polar vortex generally stays centered over the Arctic. Occasionally, a series of weather events can lead to a change in the large-scale atmospheric circulation that can disrupt the general eastward flow in the high-latitude atmosphere, nudging the polar vortex out of the Arctic towards more temperate latitudes. In these cases, warm air from the south moves into the Arctic and the cold polar vortex air from the Arctic moves south, creating a situation where extreme temperatures are likely to occur.

Andrea Lang, University at Albany – The Polar Vortex

John Van de Lindt, Colorado State University – Community Resilience

Are some communities more resilient after disasters? John van de Lindt, professor of infrastructure at Colorado State University, looks to resilience science to find out. Dr. John W. van de Lindt is the George T. Abell Distinguished Professor in Infrastructure in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Colorado State University. He formerly was a Professor at the University of Alabama where he held the Garry Neil Drummond Endowed Chair in Civil Engineering. He has also previously served on the faculty at Colorado State University and Michigan Technological University. Over the last two decades Dr. van de Lindt's research program has sought to improve the built environment by making structures and structural systems perform to the level expected by their occupants, government, and the public. This has been primarily through the development of performance-based engineering and test bed applications of building systems for earthquakes, hurricanes, tsunamis, tornadoes and floods. To accomplish this has necessitated coupling nonlinear dynamics, including stochastic approaches in both time and space with structural reliability during extreme loading events. His work includes both the development of new nonlinear numerical models and experimental investigations to calibrate those models and support hypotheses. Over the last twelve years he has successfully led federal, state, and industry sponsored projects totaling approximately $35M. As a result of these projects he has published approximately 350 technical publications including 140 peer reviewed journal papers in scholarly journals such as the Journal of Structural Engineering, Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, Engineering Structures, Structural Safety, the Journal of Earthquake Engineering, Wind and Structures, and presents work frequently at both national and international conferences. Professor van de Lindt has given a number of keynotes and invited talks around the world including Japan, China, India, Italy, Canada, and New Zealand. Much of Professor van de Lindt's current work focuses on community and urban resilience and he serves as Co-Director for the NIST-funded Center of Excellence for Risk-Based Community Resilience Planning: http://resilience.colostate.edu. Community Resilience https://academicminute.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/02-04-19-Colorado-State-Community-Resilience.mp3 In October 2016, Hurricane Matthew made national headlines as it battered hundreds of communities along the southeastern United States. One of those places was Lumberton, North Carolina, a racially diverse city of 20,000 people, many of whom live in poverty. In the weeks after Lumberton withstood devastating flooding, it hosted some unusual out-of-town visitors. I, along with my colleagues at several partnering institutions, went to Lumberton to begin documenting that community's damage and recovery from the flood. We have since returned several times. We are trying to measure something that is extremely complex: What makes a community resilient to disasters? And, what can we as scientists do to help communities prepare for disasters, like hurricanes, floods, or fires? We are using what we learn from Lumberton to develop an entirely new area of inquiry, called resilience science. In Lumberton we are observing, for example, how public schools cope with disruption. We are collecting data on individual households' damage. We are also modeling long-term housing and recovery. Through our work we have confirmed that race and socioeconomic status are key predictors of longer recovery from disasters. This knowledge will help us develop models for other communities with different socioeconomic makeups. One thing we know is that resilience science is not just engineers checking for water lines, or social scientists understanding human behaviors. To do resilience science, we have to work together. Our ultimate goal is to create a resilience model and a software environment that scientists can use to inform decision-makers, in order to strengthen their communities. That way, they can protect themselves from the next disaster – which we hope will never happen.

John Van de Lindt, Colorado State University – Community Resilience

Hallie Zwibel, New York Institute of Technology – eSports Health Care

On New York Institute of Technology Week: eSports athletes also need medical care. Hallie Zwibel, assistant professor of family medicine, explores the injuries associated with video games and how to treat them. Hallie Zwibel specializes in family practice. He is the team physician for NYIT, the director of its Center for Sports Medicine, and one of the institution's experts in eSports medicine. Zwibel earned his bachelor's degree from Binghamton University in 2007. He received his Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine from NYIT College of Osteopathic Medicine in 2011 and completed his residency in family practice at North Shore-LIJ Plainview Hospital in 2014. During his residency, Zwibel completed the Training in Policy Studies and Physician Leadership Institute fellowships. Most recently, in 2018, Zwibel earned a Masters in Public Health from University at Albany-SUNY. eSports Health Care https://academicminute.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/02-01-19-NYIT-eSports-Health-Care.mp3 The word ''athlete" may not conjure images of someone playing a video game. However, our analyses show that like any other sport, eSports, the field of competitive video gaming, comes with its fair share of health considerations. More people now watch the League of Legends World Championship than the Major League Baseball World Series and the NCAA Basketball tournament combined. Many colleges are already fielding college varsity teams. In fact, parents are telling their children to come inside to practice video games in the hopes of getting a college scholarship. And like other college-bound athletes, eSports players face their own unique medical problems. The average eSports player logs 4-6 hours of practice per day, with serious competitors logging as many as ten. The average player also completes more than 400 moves per minute using a mouse or keyboard. While the most common ailments include eye fatigue, back and neck pain, and wrist and hand injuries, the sedentary nature of eSports also affects general wellbeing, as well as social interactions and sleep routines. The use of drugs like Ritalin and excessive intake of caffeine or other stimulants also provide additional sources of concern. Integrated teams of physicians, physical and occupational therapists can address concerns.

Hallie Zwibel, New York Institute of Technology – eSports Health Care

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