The Academic Minute The Academic Minute features researchers from colleges and universities around the world, keeping listeners abreast of what's new and exciting in the academy and of all the ways academic research contributes to solving the world's toughest problems and to serving the public good.

The Academic Minute

From WAMC Northeast Public Radio

The Academic Minute features researchers from colleges and universities around the world, keeping listeners abreast of what's new and exciting in the academy and of all the ways academic research contributes to solving the world's toughest problems and to serving the public good.

Most Recent Episodes

Michael Vargas, SUNY New Paltz – COVID-19 and the Black Death

Where do we look for historical insight on the current pandemic? Michael Vargas, professor of medieval history at SUNY New Paltz, compares COVID-19 to the period of the Black Death. Employed at SUNY New Paltz since 2006, Michael Vargas advanced to Associate Professor rank in 2013 and Professor rank in 2019. He is a historian of the European Middle Ages, covering the period from the decline of Rome to the Protestant Reformation – a thousand years of important continuities and dramatic changes. Vargas teaches courses on medieval Spain, jihad and crusades, kings and kingdoms, inquisitions, medieval towns, and pilgrimage and travel. All of these courses focus on important institutions of governance, including the framing of loyalty and obligation in everyday experience. He also teaches a course called Deep History and another called Past in the Present, which look at how we get to know the past and how we put the past to the work of understanding ourselves in the present. He is the author of several books and papers and what connects all of his research are multidisciplinary training and an interest in the construction and durability of cultural and political institutions. COVID-19 and the Black Death https://academicminute.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/08/08-10-20-SUNY-New-Paltz-COVID-19-and-the-Black-Death.mp3 Within four years of its arrival into Italian ports in 1347, the plague killed about half of Europe's population, around 100 million people. But that Black Death pandemic did not cause an economic unraveling. Laborers, because they were in short supply after 1350, saw a rapid rise in wages, but only until bishops and kings wrote laws that forced earnings back down. Poverty and food insecurity existed before mid-century and continued unabated afterward, meanwhile, before and after, the rich held extravagant banquets. Kings went to war, but the spilled blood was usually not royal. The Black Death did not change the fact that greed, war, and political infidelity could be tough on most of the living. If the Black Death did not turn the economic tables, what about the psychological effects? You may know the imago mortis images, copious in the Late Middle Ages, of dancing skeletons taking people to their graves. These do not serve well as evidence of post-plague Apocalyptic fervor or Post Traumatic Stress, since before and after the mid-fourteenth century, such art did the ordinary work of negotiating anxieties about life's end. Before and after too, moralizers and agitators traded in fear and contempt, scapegoating Jews, Muslims, and heretical others. Conspiracy theories about Jews causing plague by poisoning wells were wrong, but they reaffirmed angry boundaries. In the midst of crisis, the historical evidence is with the contemplatives who say: "this too shall pass," and with the scientist's reminders that we are an adaptive species. So we can get over COVID-19 and go back to normal. But history also whispers back at itself: Can't we do better? We can go back to our work-to-buy, pollute-to-build, push-down-to-move-up normal if we want it, but we always have access to charity and goodwill, and to a sustainable humane inventiveness. Crises give us the opportunity to envision a new and better normal. The post Michael Vargas, SUNY New Paltz – COVID-19 and the Black Death appeared first on The Academic Minute.

Michael Vargas, SUNY New Paltz – COVID-19 and the Black Death

Kerry Boeye, Loyola University Maryland – Seal Matrix

On Loyola University Maryland Week: How did you authenticate your message long before Face and Touch ID? Kerry Boeye, associate professor of fine arts, looks into the past for an answer. Teaching Areas: Medieval Art, Islamic Art, Manuscripts Research Interests: Medieval manuscript illumination, representations of King Solomon. Seal Matrix https://academicminute.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/08/08-07-20-Loyola-Maryland-Seal-Matrix.mp3 Signatures, strings of numbers, passwords, a chip embedded in a credit card: these are the ways we prove our identity in daily interactions. I have been researching a medieval object, known as a seal matrix, that reveals how an official named Godwin dealt with similar authentication concerns in England 1,000 years ago. The seal matrix, carved from lustrous walrus ivory, fits comfortably in hand and dates to around 1040 A.D. The lower part of the matrix is round, roughly the size of a quarter, and shows Godwin's portrait along with an inscription that names him. The upper section is where we find one of the earliest surviving representations of the Christian Trinity, depicting God the Father, Jesus Christ the Son, and the dove of the Holy Spirit. The Trinity is a puzzling choice for Godwin's matrix: What does it have to do with sealing? In this period, the relationship of matrix and seal was understood as a metaphor for the relationship between the Trinitarian Father and Son, and for humanity created in God's image. The portrait of Godwin carved into the seal matrix resembles the image pressed in wax, just as humanity resembled God. But the image in the matrix is made of valuable, durable material, while the seal image is soft, pliable wax. Rather than making humanity of clay, this sealing metaphor imagines humanity made of wax. Theologians talked about how sin deformed humanity, distancing it from the divine image, much like a wax impression could become misshapen and no longer resemble the image in the seal matrix. Every time Godwin portrayed himself by pressing his seal was a reminder of his resemblance to God. If he lied or misrepresented himself, he would be deformed by sin like melting wax. And in thus distancing himself from God, he would court damnation. Now, imagine typing a PIN code or signing on the dotted line with the threat of eternal punishment hanging overhead. The post Kerry Boeye, Loyola University Maryland – Seal Matrix appeared first on The Academic Minute.

Kerry Boeye, Loyola University Maryland – Seal Matrix

Jeff Lating, Loyola University Maryland – Psychological First-Aid

On Loyola University Maryland Week: We could all use some psychological first-aid right now. Jeff Lating, professor of psychology, explores how this tool can reduce anxiety and stress at a crucial time. My primary research and clinical interests are in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), coronary-prone risk factors and behavioral medicine. Psychological First-Aid https://academicminute.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/08/08-06-20-Loyola-Maryland-Psychological-First-Aid.mp3 Psychological first aid, referred to as PFA, is designed to help mitigate the psychological impact of traumatic events. An analogue to physical first aid, PFA, which can be done with individuals and groups, is based on a supportive presence that is designed to stabilize and mitigate distress, as well as facilitate access to continued care. In a randomized controlled trial, my colleagues and I assessed the efficacy of group PFA by comparing the Johns Hopkins psychological first aid model with a group conversation condition to assess state anxiety and positive and negative mood. The study compared 59 participants in the PFA condition, which consisted of a 10-minute structured discussion that used scripted prompts to provide support, normalize responses, and offer self-care strategies. An additional 60 participants were involved in a 10-minute group conversation condition, which consisted of participants speaking among themselves. As expected, both groups showed similar baseline state anxiety and mood scores, and after watching a distressing 5-minute video, both groups showed similar significant increases in state anxiety scores and negative mood scores, as well as similar significant decreases in positive mood scores. However, compared to the group conversation condition, the PFA group evidenced significantly lower state anxiety scores immediately after receiving the structured PFA intervention. These results persisted when both groups were assessed again after a 30-minute delay. Compared to the group conversation condition, psychological first aid was also more effective in lowering negative mood scores at post-intervention, and significantly increasing positive mood scores at 30-minute delay. These results provide empirical support that psychological first aid mitigates acute distress, fosters positive mood, and should be considered following critical incidents. The post Jeff Lating, Loyola University Maryland – Psychological First-Aid appeared first on The Academic Minute.

Jeff Lating, Loyola University Maryland – Psychological First-Aid

Jean Lee Cole, Loyola University Maryland – The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore

On Loyola University Maryland Week: Not all book clubs are alike. Jean Lee Cole, professor of English, examines one from history that was more than meets the eye. I live in Baltimore, MD, where I am an associate professor of English at Loyola University Maryland. I specialize in the study of American periodicals and late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century American literature. I also have lots of hobbies. The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore https://academicminute.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/08/08-04-20-Loyola-Maryland-The-Woman's-Literary-Club-of-Baltimore.mp3 The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore—that's Woman's with an A— included members of prominent Baltimore families and met weekly for over 50 years, between 1890 and 1941. Nevertheless, they have been completely left out of local history. My students and I are seeking to remedy that. We transcribed over 3000 pages of handwritten meeting minutes. Accounts of weekly meetings that provide a fascinating glimpse of what women read, talked about, and wrote during the first half of the 20th century. We expected the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore to be like the book clubs we're familiar with today: women reading books together for self-improvement and as an excuse to socialize. But we discovered that these women did not just read other people's work. Many were published authors in their own right. Some, in fact, were incredibly prolific. They published novels and short stories in the most highly respected magazines of the day; volumes of poetry, translations, books and articles on history, philosophy, music, art, and dance. We found over 50 published authors among the 300 or so women who belonged to the club; so far, we have recovered over 1000 publications. This greatly expands what we know about Baltimore's literary history. Baltimore has plenty of well-known heroes—Edgar Allan Poe, and, Babe Ruth to start. Now we know that men were not the only Baltimoreans who accomplished great things. Women have always made up at least half of the human population, but remain hidden. As we commemorate the 100th anniversary of the 19th amendment giving women the right to vote, projects like this one show how much we still need to do to right-size history, to bring women back into the light. The post Jean Lee Cole, Loyola University Maryland – The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore appeared first on The Academic Minute.

Jean Lee Cole, Loyola University Maryland – The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore

Greg Hoplamazian, Loyola University Maryland – Marketing During the Pandemic

On Loyola University Maryland Week: How does a brand market effectively during a pandemic? Greg Hoplamazian, associate professor of communication, donates some good advice to help out. Greg Hoplamazian, Ph.D., associate professor of communication, works to understand what his students are going through—in and out of the classroom—to promote a positive learning environment. "Whether I am teaching students research concepts or how to analyze an advertising message, developing a habit of critical thinking is something I believe will serve my students well after they leave Loyola," he says. Dr. Hoplamazian earned his master's degree and his Ph.D. in Communication from the Ohio State University. His research focuses on media psychology and understanding how people process advertising messages, with an emphasis on the impact of social identities such as ethnicity and gender. Dr. Hoplamazian, who began teaching at Loyola in 2011, says communication majors at Loyola develop practical skills through hands-on experience: "The communication capstone course is a valuable experience for our students. They work with real clients and develop professional media content, which helps propel them beyond Loyola. Marketing During the Pandemic https://academicminute.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/08/08-03-20-Loyola-Maryland-Marketing-During-the-Pandemic.mp3 Creativity is hard no matter what. But for advertisers during the COVID-19 epidemic and BLM movement, it has been nearly impossible. Perhaps you've seen the mashup of COVID-19 themed ads from major brands, early on during the pandemic – where they all strike the same tone and utter the same phrases and use the same imagery. Or maybe you've seen the critiques of brands who offered a single social media post of solidarity with the black community using white text on a black background, ya know, like everyone else. For an industry that prides itself on creativity, and a social-cultural moment where being a leader rather than a follower is important, being cautious with your advertising message is not a winning strategy. Consumers don't need to be reminded how bad things are during COVID and they aren't looking for another message of support for the BLM movement that don't feel is genuine. So what kind of messages are working? For a COVID-19 world, don't coddle your audience, but instead seek to help them. Craft messages that directly focus on what your audiences are looking for, and focus on how you can solve these problems. How does your organization help bridge the social connectedness we are all lacking or allow us to live our lives more safely. For brands responding to the BLM movement, focus on actions over words. Remember, this moment is not about you. It's about making sure your employees feel safe and supported and identifying ways to make the world more just and equitable through internal and external business practices. What hiring practices can you change? What data can you report publicly to be held accountable? What black-owned organizations can you support? Brands or organizations that can do those things will find it much easier to talk about themselves during this pandemic, because they will ultimately be talking about what matters most to you and me. The post Greg Hoplamazian, Loyola University Maryland – Marketing During the Pandemic appeared first on The Academic Minute.

Greg Hoplamazian, Loyola University Maryland – Marketing During the Pandemic

Ann Lusk, Harvard University – Cycle Tracks

Design is key to increasing the use of bicycles in lower-income neighborhoods. Anne Lusk, research scientist at Harvard University, delves into why. Anne Lusk has 38 years of experience working on bicycle facilities with the first 16 years as a practitioner building and lecturing about bike facilities followed by 22 years as an academic in training, teaching, and conducting bicycle research related to public health. Her research focuses on comfortable and safe environments that will motivate women, children, seniors, parents, ethnic-minority and lower-income individuals, and populations around the world to bicycle. Her studies have focused on bicycle environments in association with weight control, injury, motivation, crashes, crime, environmental preferences, sustainability, Climate Change, and joy. Cycle Tracks https://academicminute.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/07-31-20-Harvard-Cycle-Tracks.mp3 Fewer safe bicycle facilities exist in lower income-ethnic minority-neighborhoods and bicyclists in these neighborhoods are more vulnerable to crime and have higher incidents of crashing. Even if bicycle facilities exist, the engineers have followed design guidelines that do not offer designs to lessen exposure to crime or for teaching where to bike to lessen risk of crashing. Volunteers in 13 groups, who live in or know of lower-income ethnic-minority neighborhoods, offered to rank and discuss 32 pictures of bicycle environments shown on a large screen. The groups included community sense individuals, such as church or YMCA members, and street sense individuals, or individuals who live in halfway houses or homeless shelters or who are members of gangs. The latter group was important because they offer unique insights. They perceived the lowest risk for crime was on a two-way cycle track and the lowest risk for crash was on a shared-use path followed by a two-way cycle track. For the surface in reducing crime and crash risk, the best bicycle facility was a wide two-way cycle track so the bicyclists knew how to get back home. Their preferred cycle track had a smooth red surface with newly painted white lines, bike stencils, and arrows to tell the bicyclist the correct direction to travel. For the context, they preferred to have clean signs, sight lines, bike signals, no dark alleys, residences with businesses, flowers, limbed up trees, good day and night-time lighting, and cafes. Biking on Main Street would be safer than biking on less frequented roads because Main Streets have people. While these elements suggest gentrification, the local residents could own the stores and prosper. The best first step for turning around a community would be installation of handsome and well-lit cycle tracks. The post Ann Lusk, Harvard University – Cycle Tracks appeared first on The Academic Minute.

Ann Lusk, Harvard University – Cycle Tracks

Maria Antonia Rodriguez, Northcentral University – DASH Diet

It's hard following a diet, even if it's for medical reasons. Maria Antonia Rodriguez, associate professor of psychology at Northcentral University, details a plan that helps to keep people on the straight and narrow. Maria Antonia Rodriguez, associate professor of psychology at Northcentral University, has designed, implemented, and evaluated behavioral interventions to improve adherence to lifestyle changes in veterans with chronic illnesses at the New York Harbor Healthcare System in New York City. She taught at the Pontifical Catholic University of Peru for five years until moving to Northcentral University, where she teaches masters and doctoral level courses in Health Psychology as well as serves on dissertation committees. She received her bachelor's degree from Pace University and her MA and PhD from the Ferkauf Graduate School of Psychology of Yeshiva University. DASH Diet https://academicminute.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/07-30-20-Northcentral-DASH-Diet.mp3 Following a healthy well-balanced diet can be challenging for anyone, and especially for those who are trying to manage a chronic illness. People diagnosed with hypertension are advised to follow the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension or DASH diet. This diet is high in fruits, vegetables, and grains and low-fat or fat-free dairy products. While physicians may discuss the importance of changing diet with patients and even refer patients to a nutritionist, nutritional education is often not enough to help someone change eating habits. Healthcare providers can use health behavior theories to counsel people to eat healthy and improve their blood pressure. The Transtheoretical Model is one such approach. This model uses the stages of change to understand where someone lies on a continuum of change and then uses cognitive and behavioral strategies to help someone make changes. The stages of change range from precontemplation, not wanting to make changes, to maintenance, sustaining changes for more than six months. This model also explores dietary self-efficacy, one's confidence in their ability to eat healthy despite barriers and decisional balance, the pros and cons of engaging in eating healthy. One research project that I have been involved in at the Department of Veterans Affairs in Dr. Sundar Natarajan's lab used the Transtheoretical Model to help veterans with uncontrolled blood pressure move through the stages of change and follow the DASH diet. We created a manual that was based on the Transtheoretical Model to deliver telephone counseling to veterans with hypertension. This approach significantly improves dietary adherence compared to a control group. In a follow-up project we trained nutritionists, pharmacists, and nurses to deliver the intervention with their patients. We will continue to explore how to incorporate elements of behavioral counseling in healthcare settings where there are many patients who need to make lifestyle changes, but few health psychologists to guide them. The post Maria Antonia Rodriguez, Northcentral University – DASH Diet appeared first on The Academic Minute.

Maria Antonia Rodriguez, Northcentral University – DASH Diet

Kevin Woo, SUNY Empire University – The Importance of Urban Ecology and Conservation

Marine mammals can be biomarkers for the health of an ecosystem. Kevin Woo, associate professor of science, mathematics and technology at SUNY Empire, explores one such system. Dr. Kevin Woo is an associate professor of science, mathematics, and technology in the Department of Natural Sciences at SUNY Empire State College. His research interests have been in animal behavior, communication, learning, and conservation. Currently, he studies marine mammal behavior and cognition, and as such is the Assistant Director for the Center for the Study of Pinniped Ecology & Cognition (C-SPEC). He studies wild populations of seals in the NYC waterways, as measures for bioindicators of ecosystem health. To compliment the field studies, he works with captive populations at the Long Island Aquarium to test for sensory perception, learning, and cognition. In addition to his scholarship, C-SPEC implements an education outreach component that informs the NYC community of urban fauna, and we also mentor students from underrepresented populations. The Importance of Urban Ecology and Conservation https://academicminute.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/07-29-20-SUNY-Empire-The-Importance-of-Urban-Ecology-and-Conservation.mp3 Urbanization has drastically changed the way in which species interact with their environment. Some generalist species thrive in highly modified habitats, whereas specialists may decline to the point of local extinction. Ecological studies examine species interactions with the environment by studying smaller-scale models, as they likely occur on larger scales. One such animal model, pinnipeds, or seals, once commonly inhabited the waterways on New York City. However, due to several interacting anthropogenic factors such as industrialization, shipping, and pollution, their presence was eliminated over a hundred years ago. Our recent survey on the perception and importance of seals on urban fauna reveal that the general public believe that species conservation and resources sustainability are important. However, when further surveyed, respondents were generally unable to identify specific species or projects of importance. To highlight this gap, demographic studies on harbor and grey seals in the New York City waterways reveal that seasonal populations are returning and their numbers are relatively stable with an increasing trend in annual populations. Despite anthropogenic challenges, the stability in seal populations is encouraging, as the return of pinnipeds demonstrate positive environmental changes. As a mesopredator, which is a species that preys on animals and yet is also prey, the return of large megafauna to urban waterways suggest that pinnipeds are likely bio-indicators of urban marine ecosystem health. That their presence and absence informs us of the overall quality of the environment, and of the existence of species in which they depend on and depend on them for survival. It is thus important that we consider the wider implications for understanding natural ecosystem processes, and species that are under accelerated conservation threat due to anthropogenic actions. Particularly as they persist through the challenges of unstoppable urbanization. The post Kevin Woo, SUNY Empire University – The Importance of Urban Ecology and Conservation appeared first on The Academic Minute.

Kevin Woo, SUNY Empire University – The Importance of Urban Ecology and Conservation

Gina Baleria, Sonoma State University – Digital Literacy

Digital literacy skills suddenly have become very important to learning. Gina Baleria, assistant professor in the department of communication and media studies at Sonoma State University, examines how these skills can bring belonging to students who aren't together. Gina Baleria, Ed.D., is an Assistant Professor of Journalism, Media Writing, & Digital Media in the Department of Communication & Media Studies at Sonoma State University. She earned her Ed.D. in Educational Leadership from San Francisco State University; her Master's in Communication: Media Studies from Stanford University; and her Bachelor's in English with emphases in Film & History from UCLA. Prior to becoming a professor, Gina was an award-winning broadcast & digital journalist at stations including KCBS Radio, KGO TV, & KGO Radio in San Francisco; and KXTV & KFBK in Sacramento. She serves on the boards of the Friends of the San Francisco Public Library and Theatre Bay Area. She also serves as a digital communications consultant for nonprofits focused on media literacy, engaging across difference, and improving public discourse and civic life. Digital Literacy https://academicminute.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/07-28-20-Sonoma-State-Digital-Literacy.mp3 Our students see their phones and tablets as portals to real spaces where they engage in relationships with teachers, co-worker, peers, friends, and family. This is even more true now... as students struggle to make connections and stay engaged during the remote learning brought on by the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, many students have not been taught the digital media literacy skills needed to navigate digital spaces, assess and decipher messages, and communicate in ways that are productive, respectful, and empathetic. This can make students feel they don't belong... and cause them to discontinue their studies. Our national discourse is not helping. Differences have grown into deep divisions across countless parameters, including party, ethnicity, race, gender, religion, and region. These divides can lead us to marginalize and OTHER those who are different, impairing our ability to work together to solve community problems. To address these challenges, I created a digital video engagement space called Mismatch.org... where students could share and listen to stories with someone who's different in one or more socially salient ways. The goal was to explore how this type of semi-structured micro-intervention influenced belonging and curiosity. Why belonging & curiosity? When students feel as if they belong, as if they're a part of something, they stay engaged, and so increasing a sense of belonging can help students persist to graduation. As for curiosity, when students are curious about each other, they may want to learn more, potentially then letting go of stereotypes and seeing others as fully formed people. My research found that students did become more curious about each other... they DID feel a greater sense of belonging... and they found commonality – helping them SEE their other as a person. Mismatch has now evolved... and it's one of many tools out there to help students share and listen to stores... improve digital media literacy skills... and increase belonging and curiosity. The post Gina Baleria, Sonoma State University – Digital Literacy appeared first on The Academic Minute.

Gina Baleria, Sonoma State University – Digital Literacy

Trysh Travis, University of Florida – Magical Thinking

How are we dealing with the pandemic? Trysh Travis, associate professor at the center for gender, sexualities, and women's studies research at the University of Florida, discusses why positive thinking is popping up again during this time. I'm a cultural and literary historian who focuses on gender and popular cultures in the 20th-century United States. I was trained in the historical study of popular media forms, and in graduate school developed a side interest in the culture of addiction and recovery. I combined these two interests in my first book, The Language of the Heart: 12-Step Recovery from AA to Oprah Winfrey (University of North Carolina Press, 2009). That book examines both the "bibliotherapeutic" dimensions of Alcoholics Anonymous, whose foundational texts were written and read almost exclusively by white me), and the recovery literature written by women and minority authors connected to AA's many offshoots. My anthology Re-Thinking Therapeutic Culture (University of Chicago Press, 2015, co-edited with my friend Tim Aubry) extends my work on popular self-help and other "mental hygiene" movements; I blog on these topics (among others) at Points: the Blog of the Alcohol and Drugs History Society. My current project is a long-overdue history of feminist responses to drug-using women. Magical Thinking https://academicminute.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/07-27-20-Florida-Magical-Thinking.mp3 The 21st-century response to the coronavirus has revealed the staying power of some 19th-century ideas about the human mind. The idea that our brains could influence reality emerged in the Victorian era. Proponents of "mind cure" rejected the notion that suffering was inevitable—part of God's plan. Inspired by new discoveries in biology and physics, they believed in using mental energy to shape the body and personal destiny. Health, wealth, and happiness could result from visualizing and affirming that "every day and every way, I am getting better and better." The result was a modern, forward-looking personality—confident and well-suited to the volatile capitalism of the Gilded Age. After World War 2, Norman Vincent Peale repackaged mind-cure spiritualism into the more secular Power of Positive Thinking. Before it became a go-to for pandemic survival, you might have known "positivity" as a key to academic achievement, leadership, and success in today's entrepreneurship economy. But what's never been clear is where positivity ends and delusion begins. The first anthropologists were contemporaries of the mind-cure mystics. These Victorians intellectuals scoffed at the "magical thinking" of primitive tribes who believed prayers and rituals could influence the course of events. Modern people didn't need magic—they had science! But... even scientists might see value in thinking positive. As long as we lack medical and economic solutions to the coronavirus, our public discourse will continue to foreground both "positive" and "magical" thinking. Understanding their common Victorian root may help us lower our expectations for the former, and raise our tolerance for the latter. The post Trysh Travis, University of Florida – Magical Thinking appeared first on The Academic Minute.

Trysh Travis, University of Florida – Magical Thinking

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