The Academic Minute The Academic Minute features researchers from colleges and universities around the world, keeping listeners abreast of what's new and exciting in the academy and of all the ways academic research contributes to solving the world's toughest problems and to serving the public good.

The Academic Minute

From WAMC Northeast Public Radio

The Academic Minute features researchers from colleges and universities around the world, keeping listeners abreast of what's new and exciting in the academy and of all the ways academic research contributes to solving the world's toughest problems and to serving the public good.

Most Recent Episodes

Ranjith Ramasamy, University of Miami – The Impacts of COVID-19 and its Vaccines on Male Fertility

On University of Miami Miller School of Medicine Week: Do COVID-19 vaccines harm male fertility? Ranjith Ramasamy, associate professor and director of reproductive urology, looks into this question. Ranjith Ramasamy, M.D., is an associate professor and director of the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine Reproductive Urology program. His extensive research in male fertility has been documented in various peer-reviewed journals. His team was the first to publish scientific research that showed that the COVID-19 mRNA vaccines do not impact male fertility. Dr. Ramasamy is the second recipient of the Young Investigator Award of Excellence from the Sexual Medicine Society of North America. He was also the recipient of the Ira and Esther Rosenwaks New Investigator Award from the American Society for Reproductive Medicine in 2020. He is currently the recipient of a 3-year R01 National Institutes of Health (NIH) grant for a first-of-its-kind study for treating erectile dysfunction using a combination of platelet-rich plasma and shockwave therapy. The Impacts of COVID-19 and its Vaccines on Male Fertility https://academicminute.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/08/08-15-22-Miami-The-Impacts-Of-COVID-19-And-Its-Vaccines-On-Male-Fertility-.mp3 Even today, there remains a lot of misinformation and hesitation surrounding COVID-19 vaccines and how they might affect male fertility. The only way to find out if these claims were viable was to conduct our own research. In 2021, we published a study in the Journal of the American Medical Association, known as JAMA, that showed that the Pfizer and Moderna mRNA COVID-19 vaccines are safe for male reproduction. Study participants between the ages of 18 and 35 who had no fertility issues provided a semen sample before receiving their first dose of either vaccine. They then provided another sample 70 days after their second dose. The full life cycle of sperm is 70 days which gave us sufficient time to see if the COVID-19 vaccines impacted semen parameters. We measured semen volume, sperm concentration, and the total amount of moving sperm and found there were no declines in any of these parameters as compared to the baseline analysis. In fact, other research we conducted and published in the World Journal of Men's Health showed that it is the COVID-19 virus itself can remain present in the penis long after recovery. COVID-19 can cause widespread endothelial dysfunction in organs beyond the lungs and kidneys, including the penis. As a result, the tissues supplied by those vessels could undergo damage which can potentially lead to erectile dysfunction. In addition, we also found that the COVID-19 virus can invade testis tissue in some men which can potentially impact male fertility. Vaccine hesitancy is a barrier to ending this pandemic and we believe that some of that hesitancy is due to public opinion on fertility. Ultimately, our goal is to scientifically demonstrate that it's actually the virus itself and not the vaccines that can impact male fertility. Read More: Miller School Study in JAMA Shows COVID-19 mRNA Vaccines Do Not Impact Male Fertility – InventUM | University of Miami Miller School of Medicine (umiamihealth.org) COVID-19 Can Infect Testes with Potential Implications for Male Fertility – InventUM | University of Miami Miller School of Medicine (umiamihealth.org) The post Ranjith Ramasamy, University of Miami – The Impacts of COVID-19 and its Vaccines on Male Fertility appeared first on The Academic Minute.

Ranjith Ramasamy, University of Miami – The Impacts of COVID-19 and its Vaccines on Male Fertility

Lina Begdache, Binghamton University – Customized Diets and Lifestyle Factors May Optimize...

What can you do right now to help your mental health? Lina Begdache, associate professor of health and wellness studies at Binghamton University, has some suggestions. Dr. Begdache is currently an assistant professor at the Binghamton University College of Nursing and Health Sciences. Her research focuses on assessing the impact of diet and lifestyle factors on mental distress with a specific focus on age-group and gender. Customized Diets and Lifestyle Factors May Optimize Mental Wellbeing https://academicminute.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/08/08-12-22-Binghamton-Customized-Diets-and-Lifestyle-Factors-May-Optimize-Mental-Wellbeing.mp3 Mental illnesses are common in the United States. Nearly one in five U.S. adults live with a mental illness (52.9 million in 2020). What if customized diets and lifestyle changes could be key to optimizing mental health? It is becoming evident that diet plays a major role in modulating mental health. We need to consider a spectrum of dietary and lifestyle changes based on different age groups and gender. No one healthy diet works for everyone. There is not one fix. Our research suggests a need to consider the differences in degree of brain maturity between young (18–29 years old) and mature (30 years or older) adults, as well as the brain morphology among men and women. Young adults are still forming new connections between brain cells as well as building structures; therefore, they need more energy and nutrients to do so. As a result, young adults who consume a poor-quality diet and experience nutritional deficiencies may suffer from a higher degree of mental distress. One of our interesting findings related to age is high caffeine consumption being associated with mental distress in both young men and young women. This is an important finding, since young adults tend to consume high levels of coffee, energy drinks and soda, most of which are loaded with caffeine. We have also found that men are less likely to be affected by diet quality than women are. As long as men eat a slightly healthy diet they will experience mental well-being. It's only when they consume mostly a very poor-quality diet such as fast food that they start experiencing mental distress. Women, on the other hand, need a spectrum of healthy food and regular exercise to experience mental well-being. Current recommendations for food intake are all based on physical health; there is an obvious need to create dietary recommendations for brain health. The post Lina Begdache, Binghamton University – Customized Diets and Lifestyle Factors May Optimize Mental Wellbeing appeared first on The Academic Minute.

Lina Begdache, Binghamton University – Customized Diets and Lifestyle Factors May Optimize...

Alexander Williams, University of Kansas – When Therapy Harms

Mental health has been on our minds, but how should we seek help? Alexander Williams, assistant teaching professor and program director of psychology at the University of Kansas, determines that seeing a therapist doesn't always help and can also harm. Dr. Williams is the Program Director of Psychology, Director of the Psychological Clinic and licensed clinical psychologist at the Edwards Campus of the University of Kansas. He conducts metascientific research on the credibility of psychological interventions. A TEDx speaker, Dr. Williams has written for Scientific American and Aeon in addition to academic journals. His work has also been featured in Inc. and on NPR. Dr. Botanov is a licensed clinical psychologist and assistant professor at Pennsylvania State University – York. He completed his doctoral training at the University of Kansas and his predoctoral internship at Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine.He is interested in clinical science training and literacy, and how (mis)understandings of science affects clinical practice and people's understanding of effective interventions. Dr. Sakaluk received his undergraduate degree in psychology from the University of Guelph, and completed his graduate training at the University of Kansas in Social Psychology. He now works as an assistant professor in Western University's Department of Psychology, as a member of the Social, Personality and Developmental Psychology Cluster. When Therapy Harms https://academicminute.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/08/08-11-22-Kansas-When-Therapy-Harms.mp3 All psychological interventions are meant to help people. Unfortunately, some can actually cause harm. That's why my colleagues and I reviewed the credibility of evidence from clinical trials of some potentially harmful psychological interventions. We did find numerous problems with credibility; for example, crucial data on potential harms were sometimes reported in a way that made their accuracy impossible to verify. Despite these challenges, we found credible evidence of harm from two psychological interventions. One is called critical incident stress debriefing, or sometimes psychological debriefing. It's meant to prevent the onset of mental health problems following a potentially traumatic event, like a natural disaster or a shooting. The other is Scared Straight–well-known for the TV show of the same name. It's an intervention in which adolescents in trouble with the law visit a prison and interact with prisoners. It's intended to frighten teenagers away from committing crimes. We found credible evidence that both interventions are harmful: they cause the very problems they are meant to prevent. That is, it would be better on average to never talk to a therapist following a trauma or an arrest than to participate in a psychological debriefing or Scared Straight program. We also found credible evidence that the DARE program, which is meant to deter kids from using drugs and alcohol, has no effect on childhood substance use. That means DARE has opportunity costs: it wastes money and resources that could be used to help kids. How can you avoid harm? Ask your therapist how they keep track of potential harms from treatment. If their answers don't satisfy you, it may be safest to look for help elsewhere. Read More: [Scientific American] – Some Psychological Interventions Are More Harmful Than Helpful [Aeon] – Bad Therapy Dr. Alexander Williams: twitter.com/williamspsych https://psych.ku.edu/alexander-williams Dr. Yevgeny Botanov: twitter.com/scitlitlab https://york.psu.edu/person/yevgeny-botanov-phd Dr. John Sakaluk: twitter.com/JohnSakaluk https://www.psychology.uwo.ca/people/faculty/profiles/sakaluk.html The post Alexander Williams, University of Kansas – When Therapy Harms appeared first on The Academic Minute.

Alexander Williams, University of Kansas – When Therapy Harms

William E. Pelham, Florida International University – Medication Doesn't Help Kids With ADHD Learn

Medication may not always be the answer for certain disorders. William E. Pelham, distinguished professor of psychology at Florida International University, explains. William E. Pelham, Jr. is a Distinguished Professor of Psychology at Florida International University and Director of the Center for Children and Families. Pelham has authored or co-authored nearly 500 professional publications dealing with ADHD and its assessment and treatment-psychosocial, pharmacological, and combined. His research has provided the foundation for the current standard in the treatment for ADHD. He has won numerous awards for his contributions from organizations such as Divisions 53 and 37 of the American Psychological Association (APA) and Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (CHADD). Pelham is a 1970 graduate of Dartmouth College and earned his Ph.D. in Clinical Psychology from the State University of New York at Stony Brook in 1976. Medication Doesn't Help Kids With ADHD Learn https://academicminute.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/08/08-10-22-FIU-Medication-Doesnt-Help-Kids-With-ADHD-Learn.mp3 For decades, most physicians, parents and teachers have believed that stimulant medications help children with ADHD learn because they are able to complete more seatwork and spend more time on-task when medicated. After all, more than 90 percent of children with ADHD are prescribed stimulant medication as the main form of treatment in school settings. However, for the first time, we found medication has no detectable impact on how much children with ADHD learn in the classroom. 173 children with ADHD between the ages of 7 and 12 were taught by certified teachers in vocabulary and science and social studies for three weeks. Contrary to expectations, we found that children learned the same amount whether they were taking medication or placebo. Improving academic achievement is important for children with ADHD because compared to their peers, children with ADHD exhibit more off-task classroom behavior, receive lower grades, and obtain lower scores on tests. Poor academic achievement is one of the most debilitating impairments associated with ADHD throughout their lifespan. Our research has found time and time again that behavioral intervention is the best first-line treatment for children with ADHD because they, their teachers, and their parents learn skills and strategies that will help them succeed at school, at home and in relationships long-term. Stimulants are most effective as a supplemental, second-line treatment option for those who need it. Behavioral and academic interventions that meaningfully improve functional impairment long-term for youth with ADHD include parent training and classroom-based management tools like a daily report card, and school services specific to academic achievement such as 504 plans and individualized education plans. Upper panels (A and B) show that medication had no detectable impact on amount of academic material learned between pretest and posttest. Lower panels (C and D) show that medication had large, salutary effects on academic seatwork productivity (more completed assignments) and classroom rule violations (behavior). The post William E. Pelham, Florida International University – Medication Doesn't Help Kids With ADHD Learn appeared first on The Academic Minute.

William E. Pelham, Florida International University – Medication Doesn't Help Kids With ADHD Learn

John Tures, LaGrange College – Red Flag Laws

Red flag laws may become more common across the U.S. John Tures, professor of political science at LaGrange College, examines if they help lower gun deaths when in place. John A. Tures is a political science professor at LaGrange College in Georgia. Before that, he worked for a defense contractor in Washington, DC. He taught at the University of Delaware and received his Ph.D. from Florida State University. He has had articles appear in academic journals and newspaper columns. Red Flag Laws https://academicminute.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/08/08-09-22-LaGrange-Red-Flag-Laws.mp3 Congress just passed its first meaningful gun legislation in several decades. This includes funding for red flag laws. Should states that don't have them adopt them? Here's what the research shows. Red flag laws vary from state to state, but generally allow a judge to declare a person unable to possess or purchase a firearm for a period of time. Requests for a risk protection order or RPO can come from family, law enforcement, a doctor or relative, depending on the state. Red flag laws started in Connecticut, but really took off after the Douglas High School shooting in Parkland, Florida in 2018. Currently, 19 states have them on the books. More could join them, now that the House and Senate passed a bill authorizing $750 million in federal funding to help states administer or pass one. Have they been successful? I compared CDC firearm death rates in the 19 states that have red flag laws to the 31 states that don't have them. For 2020, the states with the seven lowest gun death rates (homicide, suicide, accident), all had red flag laws in place. 14 of the 15 states with the highest gun death rates for 2020 did not have a red flag law. I also compared the gun death rates of states with red flag laws and those without red flag laws from 2018 to 2020. If the whole country had red flag laws in 2020, we would have almost 20,000 fewer gun deaths by my estimate than we would have if the entire country did not have a red flag law. We would also have 55,000 fewer gun deaths overall from 2018 to 2020 by that same estimation. Read More: Firearm Death Rates, If Whole Country Had.... 2020 2019 2018 Total Estimated Lives Saved, 2018-2020 With Red Flag Laws No Red Flag Laws 58036.77 50281.12 45073.87 Red Flag Laws 37321.19 28497.02 32614.61 Estimated Lives Saved Annually With Red Flag Laws 20715.58 21784.1 12459.26 54958.93 The post John Tures, LaGrange College – Red Flag Laws appeared first on The Academic Minute.

John Tures, LaGrange College – Red Flag Laws

Karen Cerulo, Rutgers University – Dreaming of Future Possibilities

Everyone has a dream. Karen Cerulo, full professor of sociology at Rutgers University, explains how striving can make things better for everyone. Karen A. Cerulo has authored several books and articles in the areas of culture and cognition, symbol systems and meaning, inequality, media and technology, social change, and identity construction. She served as the Chair of the ASA's Culture section and Vice President of the Eastern Sociological Society. She currently edits Sociological Forum, the flagship journal of the Eastern Sociological Society. In 2013, she was named the Robin M. Williams Jr. Lecturer by the Eastern Sociological Society and won that organization's Merit Award. In 2019, she was elected to the Sociological Research Association. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karen_A._Cerulo Janet M. Ruane is Professor Emerita at Montclair State University. In addition to writing numerous articles, she authored three popular text books that help readers, both in the U.S. and abroad, connect with sociology and research methods. (Second Thoughts –7 editions, Essentials of Research Methods, and Introducing Social Research Methods. Her Essentials book has been translated into Chinese and Swedish.) Professor Emerita, Sociology Department, Montclair State University, Montclair, N.J. Both author's work has been widely covered in the media, including venues such as the Chicago Tribune, CNN Travel, The Conversation, DAME magazine, Le Monde, Mycentraljersey.com, The New York Daily News, The New Republic, The New York Times, North Jersey.com, Playboy, Psychology Today, The Post Courier, The Scientific American, Slate Magazine, The Times of India, and USA Today. They have also been interviewed on a variety of radio programs and podcasts: 1010 Wins news radio, The Brian Lehrer radio program (WNYC), the Freakonomics podcast/radio program, Jeff Schechtman's "Talk Cocktail" podcast, Mancow Morning Radio Show (WLUP FM), Matthew Crawford's The Curious Man podcast, and Thinking Aloud on BBC radio Dreaming of Future Possibilities https://academicminute.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/08/08-08-22-Rutgers-Dreaming-of-Future-Possibilities.mp3 Here in the US, we encourage people to dream and to dream big. Aside from the iconic American Dream—a vision of success via hard work and education—we really don't know much about the dreams Americans embrace. Recently my colleague and I talked with over 270 men and women of varied backgrounds about their dreams for the future. Some were students, some working adults, some retired or unemployed. We talked to the financially secure as well as to the homeless. We also talked to people whose lives were disrupted by major illnesses or natural disasters. Here's what we learned: Dreams fall into a limited number of dream themes: adventure; career; fame, wealth and power; family; philanthropy; and self-improvement. People's age, gender, race, social class and life circumstances impact their dreams. Social and economic minorities cited dreams that were quite reserved in comparison to the dreams of White or wealthy respondents. Women were more committed to and optimistic about their dreams than men. Those facing health challenges tended to embrace positive views about dreaming and were the most confident about achieving their dreams. Many of the dreams we heard were rather practical and contained. Few people expressed dreams that were not grounded in reality. Indeed, fantastical dreaming—i.e. being able to levitate one's self or becoming invisible—was relatively rare. Lastly, we learned that dreaming was seen as an essential life activity. Whether they are realized or not, dreams are seen as the lifeblood of living. Read More: · Cerulo Karen A. and Janet M. Ruane. 2022. Dreams of a Lifetime: How Who We Are Shapes How We Imagine Our Future. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. https://press.princeton.edu/books/hardcover/9780691229096/dreams-of-a-lifetime · Ruane, Janet M. and Karen A. Cerulo. 2022. "How We Dream of our Future: Seven Misconceptions We Hold" Psychology Today https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/the-future-you · Cerulo, Karen A. and Janet M. Ruane. 2022. "The Crises Keep Coming, But Americans Haven't Lost Their Ability To Dream" The Chicago Tribune. https://www.chicagotribune.com/opinion/commentary/ct-opinion-covid-19-ukraine-americans-dreams-optimism-20220523-lgxwqqueyrbbtev2hejkcrpuye-story.html · Cerulo, Karen A. and Janet M. Ruane. 2022. "How Your Class, Race and Gender Influence Your Dreams of the Future" The Conversation. https://www.registercitizen.com/news/article/How-your-race-class-and-gender-influence-your-17227362.php Reprinted in Yahoo News: https://www.yahoo.com/now/race-class-gender-influence-dreams-123309571.html The post Karen Cerulo, Rutgers University – Dreaming of Future Possibilities appeared first on The Academic Minute.

Karen Cerulo, Rutgers University – Dreaming of Future Possibilities

C. Michael White, University of Connecticut – Online Rogue Pharmacies Send Millions of Fak...

Procuring drugs outside conventional means could lead to disaster. C. Michael White, distinguished professor and chair at the University of Connecticut School of Pharmacy, explores why. His research interests are in drug, dietary supplement, and substances of abuse safety and effectiveness. His over 440 publications in biomedical journals have been cited over 14,000 times and covered by major media television, radio, newspaper, and internet sites. He has received national awards from the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, and the American College of Clinical Pharmacy. Online Rogue Pharmacies Send Millions of Fake and Dangerous Pills into U.S. https://academicminute.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/08/08-05-22-Connecticut-Online-Rogue-Pharmacies-Send-Millions-of-Fake-and-Dangerous-Pills-into-US.mp3 In my study, I found that from 2016 to 2021, the FDA Office of Criminal Investigation prosecuted 130 major counterfeit drug rings. These counterfeiters made hundreds of millions of dollars in sales and the FDA seized tens of millions of pills and more than 2,000 pounds of active ingredient powder. In 65% of cases, the counterfeit products were sold over the internet, and 85% of the time, the products were obtained without a prescription. There are more than 11,000 online sites pretending to be legitimate pharmacies but are instead peddling counterfeit drugs. The National Association of Boards of Pharmacy found that virtually none of the "Canadian Pharmacies" found online were actually in Canada or shipped drugs that were approved for use by Canadian citizens. Counterfeit drugs frequently have no active ingredients in them, are not manufactured to US quality standards, and can have illegal ingredients in them. For example, in early 2022, Mexican pharmacies were caught selling Americans anticoagulants with no active ingredients increasing the risk of blood clots and strokes. Additionally, a vast majority of counterfeit oxycodone or hydromorphone tablets sold in the US are made with fentanyl, contributing to our high opioid death rate in 2021. Around 19 million Americans have accessed counterfeit medications at some point. Some people turn to counterfeit drugs because they want to acquire controlled substances without a prescription. Some people are trying to acquire drugs for erectile dysfunction or to prevent unwanted pregnancies without others finding out. However, many people turn to counterfeit medications because they simply cannot afford to purchase their expensive medications. The post C. Michael White, University of Connecticut – Online Rogue Pharmacies Send Millions of Fake and Dangerous Pills into U.S. appeared first on The Academic Minute.

C. Michael White, University of Connecticut – Online Rogue Pharmacies Send Millions of Fak...

Adolfo Sequeira, University of California Irvine – Preventing Suicide Using Biomarkers

Suicide rates continue to be a growing concern. Adolfo Sequeira, associate researcher in psychiatry & human behavior at the University of California, Irvine, explores how to identify those in need of intervention. Pedro Adolfo Sequeira earned his bachelor's degree from the University of Quebec in molecular biology in 1998. He went on to earn his Master of Science from Montreal University in neurosciences in 2001, and from there his work began to earn him accolades with numerous research awards and scholarships awarded to him. He continued his education in Montreal to earn a PhD in human genetics from McGill University in 2007. He was appointed the Della Martin Fellow from 2006-2011. His main research interests are genetics, depression, neurology suicide and molecular biology. He joined the University of California, Irvine School of Medicine in 2011 to begin his work as a project scientist and from there has grown into the role of associate professor. He works alongside the Pritzker Neuropsychiatric Disease Research Foundation. Preventing Suicide Using Biomarkers https://academicminute.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/08/08-04-22-UCI-Preventing-Suicide-Using-BioMarkers.mp3 Suicide rates are sadly growing at an alarming pace particularly among patients suffering from major depressive disorder, the most common diagnosis observed among suicide victims. There were over 48,000 suicides last year, and in the past 2 decades suicide rates in the United States increased over 35 percent. So, we are not only looking at a tragic loss of life but also a real public health problem. Globally suicide accounts for over 800,000 deaths per year. While we have made some improvements with prevention strategies and medication, we just aren't able to prevent enough suicides. We estimate that 30 percent of those who die of suicide have visited a healthcare provider within a month of their death. On top of that we see an alarming rate of suicide in individuals occurring days to weeks after being discharged from psychiatric hospitals. We have identified in blood changes in gene expression that could be used as biomarkers for suicide to potentially develop blood tests so doctors can better evaluate an individual's risk of suicide. To figure this out, our researchers analyzed blood and brain samples from depressed suicide victims and control samples, and in doing so found specific gene expression changes in certain neurological interactions such as stress response, polyamine metabolism, circadian rhythm, immune dysregulation and telomere maintenance associated with suicide victims. Our research is the first of its kind to analyze both blood and brain samples from the same subjects in what you would term as a well-defined population of patients with Major Depressive Disorder or (MDD). Our research is bringing us closer to being able to predict who is most at risk for suicide and is going to allow us to provide even more targeted intervention and treatment, we hope that these advances will help lower the rate of suicide. Read More: [Translational Psychiatry] – Identification of potential blood biomarkers associated with suicide in major depressive disorder The post Adolfo Sequeira, University of California Irvine – Preventing Suicide Using Biomarkers appeared first on The Academic Minute.

Adolfo Sequeira, University of California Irvine – Preventing Suicide Using Biomarkers

Rachel Gevlin, Birmingham-Southern College – What Novels Can Tell Us About Gendered Respon...

Novels have always been a way to understand a time and place. Rachel Gevlin, assistant professor of English at Birmingham-Southern College, discusses this in the context of relationships. Rachel Gevlin is Assistant Professor of English at Birmingham-Southern College. She received her PhD from Duke University in 2020 and her B.A. from Bennington College in 2010. Dr. Gevlin specializes in the literature and culture of England's long eighteenth century, with a particular focus on the history of the novel, masculinity studies, and legal histories of marriage and divorce. Her current book project, Divorcing the Rake: Male Chastity and the Rise of the Novel, 1753-1857, examines the intersection of eighteenth-century divorce law with the erasure of male heterosexual conduct in novels from Samuel Richardson's Sir Charles Grandison to the works of the Brontës. In it, she argues that novels from the 1750s through the 1850s presented narratives of naturalized sexual difference that reinforced gendered biases inherent in divorce laws, generating positive social responses toward men's pre- and extra-marital sex that were not afforded to women. Her writing has appeared or is forthcoming in English Literary History, Eighteenth-Century Life, and The Conversation. What Novels Can Tell Us About Gendered Responses to Adultery https://academicminute.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/08/08-03-22-Birmingham-Southern-What-Novels-Can-Tell-Us-About-Gendered-Responses-to-Adultery.mp3 Novels were to the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries what television and film became to the twentieth and twenty-first: a useful barometer with which to measure cultural history and social responses. Fiction both responds to and helps shape popular attitudes, and it is to fiction that I turn in my research on the history of responses to extra-marital sex. To do so, I look at the relatively modern phenomenon of divorce, which was unavailable to nearly everyone in both Britain and America throughout the eighteenth century and for much of the nineteenth. Typically, divorce was granted only if the other party had committed adultery, and those who were able to obtain a divorce were almost exclusively wealthy, well-connected men. This was, in large part, because women were for many centuries barred from owning and controlling property independent from their husbands, which made it impossible for women to pay for the enormously expensive divorce proceedings without financial support from their families. The options available to women trapped in unhappy marriages were therefore particularly slim. Despite the relative rareness of divorces during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, novels from this period frequently use divorce and its associated offense of adultery as plot devices. These novels tend to offer somewhat contradictory responses to divorce: novels by popular authors such as Frances Burney, Jane Austen, and Charlotte Brontë showcase the highly gendered legal inequalities in adjudicating cases of adultery and divorce. They also, however, tend to sympathize—through a range of subtle rhetorical moves—more with bad husbands than with bad wives. In doing so, these early novelists helped forward a "boys will be boys" attitude, even as they signaled inequalities within the law. The post Rachel Gevlin, Birmingham-Southern College – What Novels Can Tell Us About Gendered Responses to Adultery appeared first on The Academic Minute.

Rachel Gevlin, Birmingham-Southern College – What Novels Can Tell Us About Gendered Respon...

Josh Draper, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute – Friendship Cabins

Dining outdoors became even more en vogue during the pandemic. Josh Draper, lecturer in the School of Architecture at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, discusses how to make it even safer going forward. Josh Draper is a professor and architect working at the intersection of material, geometry and fabrication. He joined The Center for Architecture, Science and Ecology (CASE) at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) in 2014. His teaching and research at CASE is centered on waste materials, architectural research methods and phytoremediation. He received his M. Arch from GSAPP, Columbia University. Friendship Cabins https://academicminute.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/08/08-02-22-RPI-Friendship-Cabins.mp3 COVID has turned our cities inside out, forcing us to reconsider their streets. In New York City, the Open Restaurants program responded to the threat COVID posed to the restaurant industry by establishing standards for outdoor dining transforming the city with thousands of outdoor dining structures varying from the nearly ramshackle to the luxurious to the visionary. Friendship Cabins, designed by researchers at the Center for Architecture, Science and Ecology, is an outdoor dining installation at Peaches Kitchen & Bar in Brooklyn, NY. The Cabins are enclosed, isolating diners and enhancing protection for servers. They are constructed using Friendship Bottles, a prototype, interlocking plastic bottle that is designed to upcycle as a building component. This both keeps plastic out of the environment while retaining their embodied energy. The structures are designed for 105 mph winds, stronger than Hurricane Sandy, and shake table-tested. Easy-to-build, modular and moveable, the Cabins envision flexible urban programming that can be shifted for street maintenance, expanded or upgraded all using local waste as its main building component. Their translucent walls produce kaleidoscopic effects with sun during the day and vehicle headlights at night. While part of a working restaurant, Friendship Cabins are also research testbeds. Near-term efforts include renewably powered lighting and ventilation systems with advanced sensing to address a hard lesson of COVID: even now, air in restaurants is under-addressed and under-regulated. How can businesses measure and provide healthier, cleaner air going forward? How does the restaurant industry develop a new kind of resilient hospitality? Efforts towards urban resiliency are complex. Friendship Cabins begin to imagine a new way to inhabit city streets that could democratize the building process using local waste, while enhancing our health, safety and experience. Read More: Jody Kivort for Friendship Products LLC Jody Kivort for Friendship Products LLC Jody Kivort for Friendship Products LLC Jody Kivort for Friendship Products LLC Friendship Cabins Assembly Diagram: The Center for Architecture, Science and Ecology Friendship Cabins Hospitality and Health Research Vision Diagram: The Center for Architecture, Science and Ecology Friendship Cabins and the Future of Outdoor Dining https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o8qdH7LeJMo New York Loves Outdoor Dining. Here's How to Keep the Romance Alive. https://www.nytimes.com/2021/06/29/dining/outdoor-dining-nyc.html These cozy dining cabins are made from hundreds of plastic bottles https://www.fastcompany.com/90675118/these-cozy-dining-cabins-are-made-from-hundreds-of-plastic-bottles Third wave Open Streets: Open for whom? https://archinect.com/news/article/150272017/third-wave-open-streets-open-for-whom These Outdoor Dining Structures and Open Streets Won 'Alfresco' Awards https://gothamist.com/food/these-outdoor-dining-structures-and-open-streets-won-alfresco-awards 14 projects improving water around the world, whether in our oceans or what we drink https://www.fastcompany.com/90742799/world-changing-ideas-awards-2022-water-finalists-and-honorable-mentions Awards: Friendship Cabins: Alfresco NYC Best Outdoor Dining Structures // Winner; Special citation for Sustainable Design https://rpa.org/latest/news-release/alfresco-awards-open-streets-outdoor-dining-nyc-release Friendship Cabins: Fast Company's 2022 World Changing Ideas Awards // Water // Honorable Mention https://www.fastcompany.com/90742799/world-changing-ideas-awards-2022-water-finalists-and-honorable-mentions 2021 Architizer A+ Awards // Architecture +Sustainability // Special Mention https://winners.architizerawards.com/2021/Plus/concepts-11/architecture-sustainability-9/ The post Josh Draper, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute – Friendship Cabins appeared first on The Academic Minute.

Josh Draper, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute – Friendship Cabins