Trump, Inc.He's the President, yet we're still trying to answer basic questions about how his business works: What deals are happening, who they're happening with, and if the President and his family are keeping their promise to separate the Trump Organization from the Trump White House. "Trump, Inc." is a joint reporting project from WNYC Studios and ProPublica that digs deep into those questions. We'll be laying out what we know, what we don't, and how you can help us fill in the gaps. WNYC Studios is a listener-supported producer of other leading podcasts including Freakonomics Radio, Death, Sex & Money, On the Media and many more. ProPublica is a nonprofit, investigative newsroom.
He's the President, yet we're still trying to answer basic questions about how his business works: What deals are happening, who they're happening with, and if the President and his family are keeping their promise to separate the Trump Organization from the Trump White House. "Trump, Inc." is a joint reporting project from WNYC Studios and ProPublica that digs deep into those questions. We'll be laying out what we know, what we don't, and how you can help us fill in the gaps. WNYC Studios is a listener-supported producer of other leading podcasts including Freakonomics Radio, Death, Sex & Money, On the Media and many more. ProPublica is a nonprofit, investigative newsroom.
What We Now Know About Manafort, Cohen and 'Individual-1'
Court filings by prosecutors last week shined a light on the business lives of two men who worked get Donald Trump elected president: former Trump personal attorney Michael Cohen and former Trump campaign chairman Paul Manafort. Trump, Inc co-hosts Ilya Marritz and Andrea Bernstein talk with Franklin Foer of The Atlantic about what the documents show — and the further questions they raise. Among those questions:- What exactly was Manafort's connection to a business partner who some in the intelligence committee believe to be a Russian intelligence asset? - Why did Russian officials approach the Trump campaign about potential "political synergy"? - How much did Trump know about Cohen's coordination of hush money payments to two women who alleged they had affairs with the now-president?
What We Now Know About Manafort, Cohen and 'Individual-1'
Trump Jr. Invested in a Hydroponic Lettuce Company
Donald Trump Jr., the president's eldest son, took a stake last year in a startup whose co-chairman is a major Trump campaign fundraiser who has sought financial support from the federal government for his other business interests, according to records obtained by ProPublica. The fundraiser, Texas money manager Gentry Beach, and Trump Jr. attended college together, are godfather to one of each other's sons and have collaborated on investments — and on the Trump presidential campaign. Since Trump's election, Beach has attempted to obtain federal assistance for projects in Asia, the Caribbean and South America, and he has met or corresponded with top officials in the National Security Council, Interior Department and Overseas Private Investment Corporation. Beach and others at the startup, Eden Green Technology, have touted their connections to the first family to impress partners, suppliers and others, according to five current and former business associates. Richard Venn, an early backer of Eden Green, recalls the company's founder mentioning "interest from the Trump family." Another associate said Beach bragged about his ties to the Trumps in a business meeting. The investment is one of just a handful of known business ventures pursued by Trump Jr. since his father moved into the White House almost two years ago. In addition to being a top campaign surrogate and public booster, Trump Jr. serves as an executive vice president of his father's company and one of just two trustees of the trust holding the president's assets. Ethics experts have consistently criticized these arrangements, arguing that they invite those seeking to influence the government to do so by attempting to enrich the president or his family members with favorable business opportunities. Trump Jr. invested in the startup, a company that grows organic lettuce in a hydroponic greenhouse, last year, records show. Those records don't state how much money — if any — Trump paid for his 7,500 shares. But the shares would have been worth about $650,000 at the end of last year, based on a formula used by another shareholder in a recent court filing. Neither Trump Jr. nor the company have disclosed his investment publicly. Trump Jr. obtained the stake through a limited liability company called MSMDF Agriculture LLC, which was set up by a Trump Organization employee last fall. The key ethical question, said Virginia Canter, chief ethics lawyer at the nonprofit Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington, is whether Beach's involvement with Eden Green, and Trump Jr.'s investment in it, are based on the business merits — or on the possibility of cashing in on connections to power. "Why is Trump Jr. being given this opportunity?" she asked. "It definitely has the appearance of trying to gain access by any means to curry favor with the administration." The willingness of Eden Green to invoke the Trump name in its business dealings raises further ethical concerns, experts said, particularly if potential customers understand that they are giving contracts to a startup whose success could enrich the president's son. Neither Trump Jr. nor his spokesman responded to messages seeking comment on his relationship with Beach and investment in Eden Green. A White House spokeswoman didn't respond to emailed questions. Alan Garten, the Trump Organization's top lawyer, said in a statement that Trump Jr.'s investment is a personal one. The entity through which it was made "is not owned or controlled by, or affiliated in any way with, The Trump Organization," Garten said. Last fall, Eden Green concluded a deal with Walmart. Today, the giant retailer sells the company's lettuce, kale and other greens at about 100 stores in the Dallas-Fort Worth region. (Eden Green's sole facility is a 44,023-square-foot greenhouse outside Fort Worth, where it grows the greens in 18-foot vertical tubes.) Walmart interacts with government regulators on an array of matters — everything from labor practices and land use to securities filings — but there is no indication that Walmart is aware of Trump Jr.'s connection to Eden Green. (Separately, Walmart contributed $150,000 to Trump's inaugural committee. Beach was a finance vice chair of that committee, but a Beach spokesman says he has never met with Walmart executives.) Molly Blakeman, a Walmart spokeswoman, declined to comment on Eden Green or its investors. "We don't talk about our relationships with our suppliers," said Blakeman, who added that Walmart has "supported inaugural activities" in the past. Andrew Kolvet, a spokesman for Beach and the other Eden Green executives, said it's "categorically false" that the Trump name was invoked by Eden Green officials. Kolvet cited a corporate policy that forbids discussing investors "with any current or potential client." He also said Trump Jr. isn't involved with company operations and bought into Eden Green during "U.S. friends and family fundraising efforts." A recent lawsuit asserts that Eden Green is in financial trouble. In October, the company's largest shareholder, an entity controlled by a wealthy oil and gas family from Midland, Texas, filed suit in state court in Dallas, alleging "gross project mismanagement." The suit accused Beach and six executives, all of them board members, of paying themselves extravagant salaries (allegedly $250,000 to $300,000 per year) and putting the company "on the precipice of failure." A financial consultant hired to examine the company's books asserted that Eden Green executives spent more than $19.4 million in the first nine months of 2018 — a daunting sum for a company that reported having raised a total of $22 million as of June — while generating $9,000 in revenues. In late November, less than a month after the suit was filed, it was settled on confidential terms. Kolvet disputed the compensation figures asserted in the litigation, saying that the company's pay is "in accordance with industry standards." He maintained that Eden Green's prospects are good. As with many startups, he said, "things don't go in a straight line." Kolvet asserted that the company has plenty of operating cash. Trump Jr., now 40, and Beach, now 43, met at the University of Pennsylvania two decades ago. Both are the sons of wealthy businessmen, one in real estate, one in oil and gas. Beach's father has since been laid low: Last month he was sentenced to four months in federal detention, plus two years of supervised release, for bankruptcy fraud. Beach was a groomsman at Trump Jr.'s wedding (Trump Jr. and his wife recently separated). Beach and Trump Jr. like to hunt and once considered buying a hunting preserve in Mexico together. According to a 2010 deposition testimony by Trump Jr., they talked business during lunches at Rothmann's steakhouse in New York. Both have struggled in business at times. In 2009, Trump Jr. and others (including one person who pleaded guilty to an unrelated criminal fraud charge in 2010) formed a company that would sell concrete panels for home constructions out of a warehouse in North Charleston, South Carolina. The business quickly became mired in lawsuits seeking payment for unpaid bills. Trump Jr. made the situation more precarious by personally guaranteeing a $3.7 million loan for the project. Days before the note was due, the Trump Organization purchased the debt, eventually taking over the warehouse and selling it all back to Trump Jr.'s original business partner, according to press accounts. For his part, Beach's career path has also included some travails. He spent a year or so at Enron and then moved into finance. Beach worked for a hedge fund and remains locked in litigation with it more than a decade later. (He claims he wasn't paid his full compensation; the fund claims he was "responsible for the destruction of millions of dollars of investor capital.") Beach now runs a "family office focused on private equity investments" out of a Dallas office that Eden Green uses as its corporate address. Trump Jr. has at least twice before invested with Beach in deals that didn't pan out. Trump Jr. put $200,000 in a dry Texas oil well managed by Beach's father, according to testimony by Trump Jr. He also lost an unknown sum in a failed African mining company affiliated with Beach's uncle. But Trump Jr. stuck with his friend. The Associated Press reported this year that the two formed a company last October to pursue technology investments. Then there was Eden Green. By the time Trump invested last fall, the company had already run into problems. It first launched in 2013 in South Africa with an ambitious mission: to feed the world through a highly efficient indoor farming system deploying patented technology intended to yield 10 to 12 harvests a year, compared with two or three for conventional agriculture. There's a market for vegetables grown in controlled greenhouse environments as big retailers increasingly push for cleaner, more reliable and locally grown alternatives. But the challenges are significant. Energy costs run high, and there are myriad difficulties associated with scaling up to an industrial-size system. That's what happened in Eden Green's first iteration, according to a half dozen early backers and associates. The produce may have been sustainable — but the business model wasn't. The CEO of its European unit wrote in an October 2017 email obtained by ProPublica that the company had "been bleeding money and resources for almost 2 years now." In the fall of 2017, Eden Green's founders cemented a deal to hand over majority control to a group of U.S. investors led by Beach, current and former business associates said. This was the company Trump Jr. bought into. He used an innocuous-sounding limited liability company, called MSMDF Agriculture LLC, to make the investment. ProPublica discovered MSMDF after the Trump Organization listed it in New York City filings among dozens of other entities it controlled. (Because the Trump Organization has contracts with the city to run the Wollman skating rink in Central Park and a golf course in the Bronx, the city requires the company to file disclosures.) The Trump Organization told ProPublica that MSMDF is not in fact owned by the Trump Organization but was included in the disclosure form because it's controlled by Trump Jr., who was described in the form as MSMDF's president, secretary and treasurer. MSMDF was formed by a Trump Organization employee in September 2017 in Delaware, according to incorporation papers. Eden Green Holdings UK, Ltd., an affiliate of the Texas-based company, then listed MSMDF among its roughly two dozen shareholders in a 2018 report filed with British regulators. The Trump Jr-Beach connection has been most visible in the political arena. Last year, for example, Trump Jr. publicly thanked Beach and their mutual friend Tommy Hicks Jr., another wealthy investor from Dallas, for their fundraising during the 2016 campaign. "We couldn't have done it without you guys," Trump Jr. said of his buddies to a crowd of Republican donors in March 2017. "It was just absolutely incredible." In the foreword to a recent book, Trump Jr. reiterated the message, writing that a "rag tag army" — Trump Jr., Beach, Hicks and Charlie Kirk, the firebrand chief of the pro-Trump organization, Turning Point USA — barnstormed the country in 2016, raising "over 150 million dollars in ninety days." Since Trump's election, Beach has met with top administration figures on multiple occasions. For example, according to the AP, he lobbied National Security Council officials to relax sanctions against Venezuela to create opportunities for U.S. companies. He attended a private lunch with Republican donors and Interior secretary Ryan Zinke. Beach has denied leveraging his ties to the first family. Last month, Beach told a TV interviewer in Croatia, where he said he was exploring a "truly spectacular" $100 million real estate development, "I don't need anything from the government, thankfully, except normal police protection in my hometown." But newly obtained emails show that Beach wanted government backing for his private business interests at the same time he was running Eden Green. In October 2017, Beach pitched Ray Washburne, who heads the Overseas Private Investment Corporation, a government agency that offers loans and guarantees to American companies looking to expand into emerging markets, according to emails obtained under the Freedom of Information Act. (Before joining OPIC, Washburne was a Dallas investor and a top fundraiser for Trump. He and Beach move in the same circles and have friends in common.) "The Dominican Republic could really use some US investment and support," Beach wrote in one email to Washburne, describing his various projects there, which included "a power plant upgrade to an existing tin mine" as well as liquid natural gas infrastructure. He invited OPIC officials to travel with him to the Dominican Republic "If permitted, we would be happy to handle all transportation from DC to DR and back," he wrote in a follow-up note. (Such a trip never occurred, according to an OPIC spokesperson.) A month later, the emails show, Beach also lobbied on another project, arranging a call with his business partner and one of Washburne's top deputies regarding an "India Oppty," which appeared to involve an energy fund. Separately, Beach also introduced Washburne to the head of oil giant Exxon Mobil's Africa operations, with whom Beach said he had gone shooting at Blenheim Palace in England, where the Churchill family resided for three centuries. And Beach connected another Washburne aide with a South African mining executive who Beach described as "one of my partners." OPIC spokeswoman Amanda Burke said Beach has not submitted any formal applications for agency funding. "OPIC routinely meets with a variety of businesses and stakeholders," she said, adding that formal applications trigger background and credit checks and "go through several levels of agency vetting and approval." Asked whether having a Trump connection would disqualify a person from receiving OPIC support, Burke emailed that "in general, an individual's personal or legal business interests would not disqualify them from applying. However, certain relationships may cause board members or other decision makers of OPIC to be conflicted out of the decision-making process on potential projects."
Trump Jr. Invested in a Hydroponic Lettuce Company
The Emolument Suit Against Trump That Is Moving Ahead
There's lots of talk about congressional investigations of the Trump administration that may be coming. Meanwhile, there is already a push to pull back the veil on the president's conflicts. And it's making progress. This month, a federal judge ruled that Maryland and Washington, D.C., can move ahead with a lawsuit claiming the president has violated the Constitution's Emoluments Clause, which bars presidents from accepting payments from foreign and state governments without congressional approval. That means the president may soon have to turn over all sorts of documents related to his businesses. We spoke about the case with one of the lawyers behind it, District of Columbia Attorney General Karl Racine. Racine explains that the Emoluments Clause is the "country's first anticorruption law." The framers created it to "ensure that a president the United States as well as other federal officers would be loyal to the interest of the United States, not to their purses or to their pocketbooks." The Department of Justice has fought the case, disputing that the president is violating the Emoluments Clause. "This case, which should have been dismissed, presents important questions that warrant immediate appellate review," a department spokesman said after the judge's order. Racine also talked with us about what exact documents they're hoping to get, and the time a Republican Congress investigated whether another president was receiving emoluments. (He wasn't.)
The Emolument Suit Against Trump That Is Moving Ahead
Late on a Thursday evening in February 2017, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe's plane landed at Andrews Air Force Base in Maryland for his first visit with President Donald Trump. A few hours earlier, the casino magnate Sheldon Adelson's Boeing 737, which is so large it can seat 149 people, touched down at Reagan National Airport after a flight from Las Vegas. Adelson dined that night at the White House with Trump, Jared Kushner and Secretary of State Rex Tillerson. Adelson and his wife, Miriam, were among Trump's biggest benefactors, writing checks for $20 million in the campaign and pitching in an additional $5 million for the inaugural festivities. Adelson was in town to see the Japanese prime minister about a much greater sum of money. Japan, after years of acrimonious public debate, has legalized casinos. For more than a decade, Adelson and his company, Las Vegas Sands, have sought to build a multibillion-dollar casino resort there. He has called expanding to the country, one of the world's last major untapped markets, the "holy grail." Nearly every major casino company in the world is competing to secure one of a limited number of licenses to enter a market worth up to $25 billion per year. "This opportunity won't come along again, potentially ever," said Kahlil Philander, an academic who studies the industry. The morning after his White House dinner, Adelson attended a breakfast in Washington with Abe and a small group of American CEOs, including two others from the casino industry. Adelson and the other executives raised the casino issue with Abe, according to an attendee. Adelson had a potent ally in his quest: the new president of the United States. Following the business breakfast, Abe had a meeting with Trump before boarding Air Force One for a weekend at Mar-a-Lago. The two heads of state dined with Patriots owner Bob Kraft and golfed at Trump National Jupiter Golf Club with the South African golfer Ernie Els. During a meeting at Mar-a-Lago that weekend, Trump raised Adelson's casino bid to Abe, according to two people briefed on the meeting. The Japanese side was surprised. "It was totally brought up out of the blue," according to one of the people briefed on the exchange. "They were a little incredulous that he would be so brazen." After Trump told Abe he should strongly consider Las Vegas Sands for a license, "Abe didn't really respond, and said thank you for the information," this person said. Trump also mentioned at least one other casino operator. Accounts differ on whether it was MGM or Wynn Resorts, then run by Trump donor and then-Republican National Committee finance chairman Steve Wynn. The Japanese newspaper Nikkei reported the president also mentioned MGM and Abe instructed an aide who was present to jot down the names of both companies. Questioned about the meeting, Abe said in remarks before the Japanese legislature in July that Trump had not passed on requests from casino companies but did not deny that the topic had come up. The president raising a top donor's personal business interests directly with a foreign head of state would violate longstanding norms. "That should be nowhere near the agenda of senior officials," said Brian Harding, a Japan expert at the Center for Strategic and International Studies. "U.S.-Japan relations is about the security of the Asia-Pacific, China and economic issues." Adelson has told his shareholders to expect good news. On a recent earnings call, Adelson cited unnamed insiders as saying Sands' efforts to win a place in the Japanese market will pay off. "The estimates by people who know, say they know, whom we believe they know, say that we're in the No. 1 pole position," he said. After decades as a major Republican donor, Adelson is known as an ideological figure, motivated by his desire to influence U.S. policy to help Israel. "I'm a one-issue person. That issue is Israel," he said last year. On that issue — Israel — Trump has delivered. The administration has slashed funding for aid to Palestinian refugees and scrapped the Iran nuclear deal. Attending the recent opening of the U.S. embassy in Jerusalem, Adelson seemed to almost weep with joy, according to an attendee. But his reputation as an Israel advocate has obscured a through-line in his career: He has used his political access to push his financial self-interest. Not only has Trump touted Sands' interests in Japan, but his administration also installed an executive from the casino industry in a top position in the U.S. embassy in Tokyo. Adelson's influence reverberates through this administration. Cabinet-level officials jump when he calls. One who displeased him was replaced. He has helped a friend's company get a research deal with the Environmental Protection Agency. And Adelson has already received a windfall from Trump's new tax law, which particularly favored companies like Las Vegas Sands. The company estimated the benefit of the law at $1.2 billion. Adelson's influence is not absolute: His company's casinos in Macau are vulnerable in Trump's trade war with China, which controls the former Portuguese colony near Hong Kong. If the Chinese government chose to retaliate by targeting Macau, where Sands has several large properties, it could hurt Adelson's bottom line. So far, there's no evidence that has happened. The White House declined to comment on Adelson. The Japanese Embassy in Washington declined to comment. Sands spokesman Ron Reese declined to answer detailed questions but said in a statement: "The gaming industry has long sought the opportunity to enter the Japan market. Gaming companies have spent significant resources there on that effort and Las Vegas Sands is no exception." Reese added: "If our company has any advantage it would be because of our significant Asian operating experience and our unique convention-based business model. Any suggestion we are favored for some other reason is not based on the reality of the process in Japan or the integrity of the officials involved in it." With a fortune estimated at $35 billion, Adelson is the 21st-richest person in the world, according to Forbes. In August, when he celebrated his 85th birthday in Las Vegas, the party stretched over four days. Adelson covered guests' expenses. A 92-year-old Tony Bennett and the Israeli winner of Eurovision performed for the festivities. He is slowing down physically; stricken by neuropathy, he uses a motorized scooter to get around and often stands up with the help of a bodyguard. He fell and broke three ribs while on a ferry from Macau to Hong Kong last November. Yet Adelson has spent the Trump era hustling to expand his gambling empire. With Trump occupying the White House, Adelson has found the greatest political ally he's ever had. "I would put Adelson at the very top of the list of both access and influence in the Trump administration," said Craig Holman of the watchdog group Public Citizen. "I've never seen anything like it before, and I've been studying money in politics for 40 years." ***** Adelson grew up poor in Boston, the son of a cabdriver with a sixth-grade education. According to his wife, Adelson was beaten up as a kid for being Jewish. A serial entrepreneur who has started or acquired more than 50 different businesses, he had already made and lost his first fortune by the late 1960s, when he was in his mid-30s. It took him until the mid-1990s to become extraordinarily rich. In 1995, he sold the pioneering computer trade show Comdex to the Japanese conglomerate SoftBank for $800 million. He entered the gambling business in earnest when his Venetian casino resort opened in 1999 in Las Vegas. With its gondola rides on faux canals, it was inspired by his honeymoon to Venice with Miriam, who is 12 years younger than Adelson. It's been said that Trump is a poor person's idea of a rich person. Adelson could be thought of as Trump's idea of a rich person. A family friend recalls Sheldon and Miriam's two sons, who are now in college, getting picked up from school in stretch Hummer limousines and his home being so large it was stocked with Segway transporters to get around. A Las Vegas TV station found a few years ago that, amid a drought, Adelson's palatial home a short drive from the Vegas Strip had used nearly 8 million gallons of water in a year, enough for 55 average homes. Adelson will rattle off his precise wealth based on the fluctuation of Las Vegas Sands' share price, said his friend the New York investor Michael Steinhardt. "He's very sensitive to his net worth," Steinhardt said. Trump entered the casino business several years before Adelson. In the early 1990s, both eyed Eilat in southern Israel as a potential casino site. Neither built there. Adelson "didn't have a whole lot of respect for Trump when Trump was operating casinos. He was dismissive of Trump," recalled one former Las Vegas Sands official. In an interview in the late '90s, Adelson lumped Trump with Wynn: "Both of these gentlemen have very big egos," Adelson said. "Well, the world doesn't really care about their egos." Today, in his rare public appearances, Adelson has a grandfatherly affect. He likes to refer to himself as "Self" ("I said to myself, 'Self ...'"). He makes Borscht Belt jokes about his short stature: "A friend of mine says, 'You're the tallest guy in the world.' I said, 'How do you figure that?' He says, 'When you stand on your wallet.'" By the early 2000s, Adelson's Las Vegas Sands had surpassed Trump's casino operations. While Trump was getting bogged down in Atlantic City, Adelson's properties thrived. When Macau opened up a local gambling monopoly, Adelson bested a crowded field that included Trump to win a license. Today, Macau accounts for more than half of Las Vegas Sands' roughly $13 billion in annual revenue. Trump's casinos went bankrupt, and now he is out of the industry entirely. By the mid-2000s, Trump was playing the role of business tycoon on his reality show, "The Apprentice." Meanwhile, Adelson aggressively expanded his empire in Macau and later in Singapore. His company's Moshe Safdie-designed Marina Bay Sands property there, with its rooftop infinity pool, featured prominently in the recent hit movie "Crazy Rich Asians." While their business trajectories diverged, Adelson and Trump have long shared a willingness to sue critics, enemies and business associates. Multiple people said they were too afraid of lawsuits to speak on the record for this story. In 1989, after the Nevada Gaming Control Board conducted a background investigation of Adelson, it found he had already been personally involved in around 100 civil lawsuits, according to the book "License to Steal," a history of the agency. That included matters as small as a $600 contractual dispute with a Boston hospital. The lawsuits have continued even as Adelson became so rich the amounts of money at stake hardly mattered. In one case, Adelson was unhappy with the quality of construction on one of his beachfront Malibu, California, properties and pursued a legal dispute with the contractor for more than seven years, going through a lengthy series of appeals and cases in different courts. Adelson sued a Wall Street Journal reporter for libel over a single phrase — a description of him as "foul-mouthed" — and fought the case for four years before it was settled, with the story unchanged. In a particularly bitter case in Massachusetts Superior Court in the 1990s, his sons from his first marriage accused him of cheating them out of money. Adelson prevailed. Adelson rarely speaks to the media any more, with occasional exceptions for friendly business journalists or on stage at conferences, usually interviewed by people to whom he has given a great deal of money. "He keeps a very tight inner circle," said a casino industry executive who has known Adelson for decades. Adelson declined to comment for this story. ******* Adelson once told a reporter of entering the casino business late in life, "I loved being an outsider." For nearly a decade he played that role in presidential politics, bankrolling the opposition to the Obama administration. As with some of his early entrepreneurial forays, he dumped money for little return, his political picks going bust. In 2008, he backed Rudy Giuliani. As America's Mayor faded, he came on board late with the John McCain campaign. In 2012, he almost single-handedly funded Newt Gingrich's candidacy. Gingrich spent a few weeks atop the polls before his candidacy collapsed. Adelson became a late adopter of Mitt Romney. In 2016, the Adelsons didn't officially endorse a candidate for months. Trump used Adelson as a foil, an example of the well-heeled donors who wielded outsized influence in Washington. "Sheldon or whoever — you could say Koch. I could name them all. They're all friends of mine, every one of them. I know all of them. They have pretty much total control over the candidate," Trump said on Fox News in October 2015. "Nobody controls me but the American public." In a pointed tweet that month, Trump said: "Sheldon Adelson is looking to give big dollars to [Marco] Rubio because he feels he can mold him into his perfect little puppet. I agree!" Despite Trump's barbs, Adelson had grown curious about the candidate and called his friend Steinhardt, who founded the Birthright program that sends young Jews on free trips to Israel. Adelson is now the program's largest funder. "I called Kushner and I said Sheldon would like to meet your father-in-law," Steinhardt recalled. "Kushner was excited." Trump got on a plane to Las Vegas. "Sheldon has strong views when it comes to the Jewish people; Trump recognized that, and a marriage was formed." Trump and his son-in-law Kushner courted Adelson privately, meeting several times in New York and Las Vegas. "Having Orthodox Jews like Jared and Ivanka next to him and so many common people in interest gave a level of comfort to Sheldon," said Ronn Torossian, a New York public relations executive who knows both men. "Someone who lets their kid marry an Orthodox Jew and then become Orthodox is probably going to stand pretty damn close to Israel." Miriam Adelson, a physician born and raised in what became Israel, is said to be an equal partner in Sheldon Adelson's political decisions. He has said the interests of the Jewish state are at the center of his worldview, and his views align with Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu's right-of-center approach to Iran and Israel's occupation of Palestinian territories. Adelson suggested in 2014 that Israel doesn't need to be a democracy. "I think God didn't say anything about democracy," Adelson said. "He didn't talk about Israel remaining as a democratic state." On a trip to the country several years ago, on the eve of his young son's bar mitzvah, Adelson said, "Hopefully he'll come back; his hobby is shooting. He'll come back and be a sniper for the IDF," referring to the Israel Defense Forces. On domestic issues, Adelson is more Chamber of Commerce Republican than movement conservative or Trumpian populist. He is pro-choice and has called for work permits and a path to citizenship for undocumented immigrants, a position sharply at odds with Trump's. While the Koch brothers, his fellow Republican megadonors, have evinced concern over trade policy and distaste for Trump, Adelson has proved flexible, putting aside any qualms about Trump's business acumen or ideological misgivings. In May 2016, he declared in a Washington Post op-ed that he was endorsing Trump. He wrote that Trump represented "a CEO success story that exemplifies the American spirit of determination, commitment to cause and business stewardship." The Adelsons came through with $20 million in donations to the pro-Trump super PAC, part of at least $83 million in donations to Republicans. By the time of the October 2016 release of the Access Hollywood tape featuring Trump bragging about sexual assault, Adelson was among his staunchest supporters. "Sheldon Adelson had Donald Trump's back," said Steve Bannon in a speech last year, speaking of the time after the scandal broke. "He was there." In December 2016, Adelson donated $5 million to the Trump inaugural festivities. The Adelsons had better seats at Trump's inauguration than many Cabinet secretaries. The whole family, including their two college-age sons, came to Washington for the celebration. One of his sons posted a picture on Instagram of the event with the hashtag #HuckFillary. The investment paid off in access and in financial returns. Adelson has met with Trump or visited the White House at least six times since Trump's election victory. The two speak regularly. Adelson has also had access to others in the White House. He met privately with Vice President Mike Pence before Pence gave a speech at Adelson's Venetian resort in Las Vegas last year. "He just calls the president all the time. Donald Trump takes Sheldon Adelson's calls," said Alan Dershowitz, who has done legal work for Adelson and advised Trump. Adelson's tens of millions in donations to Trump have already been paid back many times over by the new tax law. While all corporations benefited from the lower tax rate in the new law, many incurred an extra bill in the transition because profits overseas were hit with a one-time tax. But not Sands. Adelson's company hired lobbyists to press Trump's Treasury Department and Congress on provisions that would help companies like Sands that paid high taxes abroad, according to public filings and tax experts. The lobbying effort appears to have worked. After Trump signed the tax overhaul into law in December, Las Vegas Sands recorded a benefit from the new law the company estimated at $1.2 billion. The Adelson family owns 55 percent of Las Vegas Sands, which is publicly traded, according to filings. The Treasury Department didn't respond to requests for comment. Now as Trump and the Republican Party face a reckoning in the midterm elections in November, they have once again turned to Adelson. He has given at least $55 million so far. ***** In 2014, Adelson told an interviewer he was not interested in building a dynasty. "I want my legacy to be that I helped out humankind," he said, underscoring his family's considerable donations to medical research. But he gives no indication of sticking to a quiet life of philanthropy. In the last four years, he has used the Sands' fleet of private jets, assiduously meeting with world leaders and seeking to build new casinos in Japan, Korea and Brazil. He is closest in Japan. Japan has been considering lifting its ban on casinos for years, in spite of majority opposition in polls from a public that is wary of the social problems that might result. A huge de facto gambling industry of the pinball-like game pachinko has long existed in the country, historically associated with organized crime and seedy parlors filled with cigarette-smoking men. Opposition to allowing casinos is so heated that a brawl broke out in the Japanese legislature this summer. But lawmakers have moved forward on legalizing casinos and crafted regulations that hew to Adelson's wishes. "Japan is considered the next big market. Sheldon looks at it that way," said a former Sands official. Adelson envisions building a $10 billion "integrated resort," which in industry parlance refers to a large complex featuring a casino with hotels, entertainment venues, restaurants and shopping malls. The new Japanese law allows for just three licenses to build casinos in cities around the country, effectively granting valuable local monopolies. At least 13 companies, including giants like MGM and Genting, are vying for a license. Even though Sands is already a strong contender because of its size and its successful resort in Singapore, some observers in Japan believe Adelson's relationship with Trump has helped move Las Vegas Sands closer to the multibillion-dollar prize. Just a week after the U.S. election, Prime Minister Abe arrived at Trump Tower, becoming the first foreign leader to meet with the president-elect. Ivanka Trump and Jared Kushner were also there. Abe presented Trump with a gilded $3,800 golf driver. Few know the details of what the Trumps and Abe discussed at the meeting. In a break with protocol, Trump's transition team sidelined the State Department, whose Japan experts were never briefed on what was said. "There was a great deal of frustration," said one State Department official. "There was zero communication from anyone on Trump's team." In another sign of Adelson's direct access to the incoming president and ties with Japan, he secured a coveted Trump Tower meeting a few weeks later for an old friend, the Japanese billionaire businessman Masayoshi Son. Son's company, SoftBank, had bought Adelson's computer trade show business in the 1990s. A few years ago, Adelson named Son as a potential partner in his casino resort plans in Japan. Son's SoftBank, for its part, owns Sprint, which has long wanted to merge with T-Mobile but needs a green light from the Trump administration. A beaming Son emerged from the meeting in the lobby of Trump Tower with the president-elect and promised $50 billion in investments in the U.S. When Trump won the election in November 2016, the casino bill had been stalled in the Japanese Diet. One month after the Trump-Abe meeting, in an unexpected move in mid-December, Abe's ruling coalition pushed through landmark legislation authorizing casinos, with specific regulations to be ironed out later. There was minimal debate on the controversial bill, and it passed at the very end of an extraordinary session of the legislature. "That was a surprise to a lot of stakeholders," said one former Sands executive who still works in the industry. Some observers suspect the timing was not a coincidence. "After Trump won the election in 2016, the Abe government's efforts to pass the casino bill shifted into high gear," said Yoichi Torihata, a professor at Shizuoka University and opponent of the casino law. On a Las Vegas Sands earnings call a few days after Trump's inauguration, Adelson touted that Abe had visited the company's casino resort complex in Singapore. "He was very impressed with it," Adelson said. Days later, Adelson attended the February breakfast with Abe in Washington, after which the prime minister went on to Mar-a-Lago, where the president raised Las Vegas Sands. A week after that, Adelson flew to Japan and met with the secretary general of Abe's Liberal Democratic Party in Tokyo. The casino business is one of the most regulated industries in the world, and Adelson has always sought political allies. To enter the business in 1989, he hired the former governor of Nevada to represent him before the state's gaming commission. In 2001, according to court testimony reported in the New Yorker, Adelson intervened with then-House Majority Whip Rep. Tom DeLay, to whom he was a major donor, at the behest of a Chinese official over a proposed House resolution that was critical of the country's human rights record. At the time, Las Vegas Sands was seeking entry into the Macau market. The resolution died, which Adelson attributed to factors other than his intervention, according to the magazine. In 2015, he purchased the Las Vegas Review-Journal, the state's largest newspaper, which then published a lengthy investigative series on one of Adelson's longtime rivals, the Las Vegas Convention and Visitors Authority, which runs a convention center that competes with Adelson's. (The paper said Adelson had no influence over its coverage.) In Japan, Las Vegas Sands' efforts have accelerated in the last year. Adelson returned to the country in September 2017, visiting top officials in Osaka, a possible casino site. In a show of star power in October, Sands flew in David Beckham and the Eagles' Joe Walsh for a press conference at the Palace Hotel Tokyo. Beckham waxed enthusiastic about his love of sea urchin and declared, "Las Vegas Sands is creating fabulous resorts all around the world, and their scale and vision are impressive." Adelson appears emboldened. When he was in Osaka last fall, he publicly criticized a proposal under consideration to cap the total amount of floor space devoted to casinos in the resorts that have been legalized. In July, the Japanese Diet passed a bill with more details on what casinos will look like and laying out the bidding process. The absolute limit on casino floor area had been dropped from the legislation. Meanwhile, the Trump administration has made an unusual personnel move that could help advance pro-gambling interests. The new U.S. ambassador, an early Trump campaign supporter and Tennessee businessman named William Hagerty, hired as his senior adviser an American executive working on casino issues for the Japanese company SEGA Sammy. Joseph Schmelzeis left his role as senior adviser on global government and industry affairs for the company in February to join the U.S. Embassy. (He has not worked for Sands.) A State Department spokesperson said that embassy officials had communicated with Sands as part of "routine" meetings and advice provided to members of the American Chamber of Commerce in Japan. The spokesperson said that "Schmelzeis is not participating in any matter related to integrated resorts or Las Vegas Sands." Japanese opposition politicians have seized on the Adelson-Trump-Abe nexus. One, Tetsuya Shiokawa, said this year that he believes Trump has been the unseen force behind why Abe's party has "tailor-made the [casino] bill to suit foreign investors like Adelson." In the next stage of the process, casino companies will complete their bids with Japanese localities. ****** Adelson's influence has spread across the Trump administration. In August 2017, the Zionist Organization of America, to which the Adelsons are major donors, launched a campaign against National Security Adviser H.R. McMaster. ZOA chief Mort Klein charged McMaster "clearly has animus toward Israel." Adelson said he was convinced to support the attack on McMaster after Adelson spoke with Safra Catz, the Israeli-born CEO of Oracle, who "enlightened me quite a bit" about McMaster, according to an email Klein later released to the media. Adelson pressed Trump to appoint the hawkish John Bolton to a high position, The New York Times reported. In March, Trump fired McMaster and replaced him with Bolton. The president and other cabinet officials also clashed with McMaster on policy and style issues. For Scott Pruitt, the former EPA administrator known as an ally of industry, courting Adelson meant developing a keen interest in an unlikely topic: technology that generates clean water from air. An obscure Israeli startup called Watergen makes machines that resemble air conditioners and, with enough electricity, can pull potable water from the air. Adelson doesn't have a stake in the company, but he is old friends with the Israeli-Georgian billionaire who owns the firm, Mikhael Mirilashvili, according to the head of Watergen's U.S. operation, Yehuda Kaploun. Adelson first encountered the technology on a trip to Israel, Kaploun said. Dershowitz is also on the company's board. Just weeks after being confirmed, Pruitt met with Watergen executives at Adelson's request. Pruitt promptly mobilized dozens of EPA officials to ink a research deal under which the agency would study Watergen's technology. EPA officials immediately began voicing concerns about the request, according to hundreds of previously unreported emails obtained through the Freedom of Information Act. They argued that the then-EPA chief was violating regular procedures. Pruitt, according to one email, asked that staffers explore "on an expedited time frame" whether a deal could be done "without the typical contracting requirements." Other emails described the matter as "very time sensitive" and having "high Administrator interest." A veteran scientist at the agency warned that the "technology has been around for decades," adding that the agency should not be "focusing on a single vendor, in this case Watergen." Officials said that Watergen's technology was not unique, noting there were as many as 70 different suppliers on the market with products using the same concept. Notes from a meeting said the agency "does not currently have the expertise or staff to evaluate these technologies." Agency lawyers "seemed scared" about the arrangement, according to an internal text exchange. The EPA didn't respond to requests for comment. Watergen got its research deal. It's not known how much money the agency has spent on the project. The technology was shipped to a lab in Cincinnati, and Watergen said the government will produce a report on its study. Pruitt planned to unveil the deal on a trip to Israel, which was also planned with the assistance of Adelson, The Washington Post reported. But amid multiple scandals, the trip never happened. Other parts of the Trump administration have also been friendly to Watergen. Over the summer, Mirilashvili attended the U.S. Embassy in Israel's Fourth of July party, where he was photographed grinning and sipping water next to one of the company's machines on display. Kaploun said U.S. Ambassador David Friedman's staff assisted the company to help highlight its technology. A State Department spokesperson said Watergen was one of many private sponsors of the embassy party and was "subject to rigorous vetting." The embassy is now considering leasing or buying a Watergen unit as part of a "routine procurement action," the spokesperson said. A Mirilashvili spokesman said in a statement that Adelson and Mirilashvili "have no business ties with each other." The spokesman added that Adelson had been briefed on the company's technology by Watergen engineers and "Adelson has also expressed an interest in the ability of this Israeli technology to save the lives of hundreds of thousands of Americans who are affected by water pollution." ***** Even as the casino business looks promising in Japan, China has been a potential trouble spot for Adelson. Few businesses are as vulnerable to geopolitical winds as Adelson's. The majority of Sands' value derives from its properties in Macau. It is the world's gambling capital, and China's central government controls it. "Sheldon Adelson highly values direct engagement in Beijing," a 2009 State Department cable released by WikiLeaks says, "especially given the impact of Beijing's visa policies on the company's growing mass market operations in Macau." At times, Sands' aggressive efforts in China crossed legal lines. On Jan. 19, 2017, the day before Trump took office, the Justice Department announced Sands was paying a nearly $7 million fine to settle a longstanding investigation into whether it violated a U.S. anti-bribery statute in China. The case revealed that Sands paid roughly $60 million to a consultant who "advertised his political connections with [People's Republic of China] government officials" and that some of the payments "had no discernible legitimate business purpose." Part of the work involved an effort by Sands to acquire a professional basketball team in the country to promote its casinos. The DOJ said Sands fully cooperated in the investigation and fixed its compliance problems. A year and a half into the Trump administration, Adelson has a bigger problem than the Justice Department investigation: Trump's trade war against Beijing has put Sands' business in Macau at risk. Sands' right to operate expires in a few years. Beijing could throttle the flow of money and people from the mainland to Macau. Sands and the other foreign operators in Macau "now sit on a geopolitical fault line. Their Macau concessions can therefore be on the line," said a report from the Hong Kong business consultancy Steve Vickers & Associates. A former Sands board member, George Koo, wrote a column in the Asia Times newspaper in April warning that Beijing could undercut the Macau market by legalizing casinos in the southern island province of Hainan. "A major blow in the trade war would be for China to allow Hainan to become a gambling destination and divert visitors who would otherwise be visiting Macau," Koo wrote. "As one of Trump's principal supporters, it's undoubtedly a good time for Mr. Adelson to have a private conversation with the president." It's not clear if Adelson has had that conversation. According to The Associated Press, Adelson was present for a discussion of China policy at the dinner he attended with Trump at the White House in February 2017. In September, Trump escalated his trade war with China. He raised tariffs on $200 billion Chinese imports. China retaliated with tariffs on $60 billion of U.S. products. Adelson has said privately that if he can be helpful in any way he would volunteer himself to do whatever is asked for either side of the equation — the U.S. or China, according to a person who has spoken to him. ****** Torossian, the public relations executive, calls Adelson "this generation's Rothschild" for his support of Israel. In early May, the Adelsons gave $30 million to the super PAC that is seeking to keep Republican control of the House for the remainder of Trump's term. A few days later, Trump announced he was killing the Iran nuclear deal, a target of Adelson's and the Netanyahu government's for years. The following day, Adelson met with the president at the White House. Five days later, Adelson was in Israel for another landmark, the opening of the U.S. Embassy in Jerusalem. Trump's decision to move the U.S. Embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem marked a major shift in U.S. foreign policy, long eschewed by presidents of both parties. Besides dealing a major blow to Palestinian claims on part of the city, which are recognized by most of the world, it was the culmination of a more than 20-year project of the Adelsons. Sheldon and Miriam personally lobbied for the move on Capitol Hill as far back as 1995. In an audience dotted with yarmulkes and MAGA-red hats, the Adelsons were in the front now, next to Netanyahu and his wife, the Kushners and Treasury Secretary Steve Mnuchin. A beaming Miriam, wearing a dress featuring an illustration of the Jerusalem skyline, filmed the event with her phone. She wrote a first-person account of the ceremony that was co-published on the front page of the two newspapers the Adelsons own, Israel Hayom and the Las Vegas Review-Journal: "The embassy opening is a crowning moment for U.S. foreign policy and for our president, Donald Trump. Just over a year into his first term, he has re-enshrined the United States as the standard-bearer of moral clarity and courage in a world that too often feels adrift." Adelson paid for the official delegation of Guatemala, the only other country to move its embassy, to travel to Israel. "Sheldon told me that any country that wants to move its embassy to Jerusalem, he'll fly them in — the president and everyone — for the opening," said Orthodox Jewish Chamber of Commerce CEO Duvi Honig, who was in attendance. Klein, the Zionist Organization of America president, was also there. The Adelsons, he said, "were glowing with a serene happiness like I've never seen them. Sheldon "said to me, 'President Trump promised he would do this and he did it.' And he almost became emotional. 'And look, Mort, he did it.'