James Q. Wilson is a conservative scholar at Pepperdine University. As crime rates rose in America in the 1960s and early '70s, he was among those who advocated tougher crime laws, arguing that putting more criminals in jail would lower the crime rate.

He's also highly critical of the prospects of success for prison rehabilitation programs. Among the evidence Wilson has cited is a 30-year study begun at Harvard in the late 1930s. That study found very little difference in crime rates between youths given access to counseling, educational programs and other services, and those in a control group.

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