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James Mattis spent four decades in the Marines. He served as a commander in Afghanistan shortly after the al-Qaida attacks in 2001. Celeste Sloman for NPR hide caption

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Celeste Sloman for NPR

National Security

Jim Mattis: 'Nations With Allies Thrive, Nations Without Allies Wither'

In an interview with NPR, former Defense Secretary Jim Mattis stresses the importance of allies and he also criticizes shifting U.S. policy aims during the wars of the past 18 years.

A local market is seen burning during a protest in Fakfak, West Papua, Indonesia, on Aug. 21. Violent protests this month were sparked by accusations that security forces had arrested Papuan students in East Java. Beawiharta/AP hide caption

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Beawiharta/AP

Violence Follows Pro-Independence Protests In Indonesia's Papua Region

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Pakistan's Prime Minister Imran Khan meets U.S. Special Envoy Zalmay Khalilzad (left) in Islamabad on Aug. 1. Khalilzad met Khan ahead of peace talks in Qatar with the Taliban. Press Information Department via AP hide caption

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Press Information Department via AP

The Key Role Pakistan Is Playing In U.S.-Taliban Talks

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The measles virus is highly contagious. If someone with measles coughs or sneezes, the virus in those droplets can survive for two hours afterward — infecting about 90% of the people lacking immunity who pass through that space. Erik Witsoe/EyeEm/Getty Images hide caption

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Erik Witsoe/EyeEm/Getty Images

Millennial And Gen-X Travelers: Need Another Measles Shot?

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Even if optimism doesn't come naturally, it can be taught, researchers say. Therapists can help you practice reframing your expectations, to cultivate a sunnier outlook. Roy Scott/Ikon Images via Getty Images hide caption

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Roy Scott/Ikon Images via Getty Images

Optimists For The Win: Finding The Bright Side Might Help You Live Longer

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James Mattis spent four decades in the Marines. He served as a commander in Afghanistan shortly after the al-Qaida attacks in 2001. Celeste Sloman for NPR hide caption

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Celeste Sloman for NPR

Jim Mattis: 'Nations With Allies Thrive, Nations Without Allies Wither'

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