The Pennsylvania Department of Health said hand sanitizer-related exposures are up more than 80%, compared with this time last year, at poison control centers in Pittsburgh and Philadelphia, the state's two largest cities.
Pittsburgh's center reports that 75% of hand sanitizer-related calls involve children, the majority age 5 or younger.
"They almost always are either intentionally or accidentally drinking it," said Dr. Michael Lynch, the center's director. "Or [it's] potentially in the eyes and causing burning."
Most exposures are mild because hand sanitizer is not particularly toxic. Homemade sanitizers do run the risk of skin irritation if they are not manufactured properly.
After an exposure, the usual recommendation is to wash the area with water. If sanitizer has been ingested, eating or drinking something can help settle the stomach.
Hand sanitizer tastes bad, which means kids usually imbibe just small amounts. On rare occasions, a child might become intoxicated. This carries risk of injury and "behavioral issues."
"We don't recommend inducing vomiting ... it often doesn't improve the outcomes," Lynch said. "Alcohol of any kind is absorbed fairly readily."
After an exposure, Lynch said, people should seek medical care only in the case of consistent vomiting, breathing issues or sleepiness.
Most adults exposures are also accidental, though sometimes those with alcohol use disorder imbibe hand sanitizer or other substances like anti-freeze and windshield wiper fluid to address symptoms of withdrawal.
Lynch said he has seen a slight uptick in these cases now that Pennsylvania's liquor stores have been closed. People can still purchase alcohol from bars, restaurants and distilleries.
"It's something that we are concerned about and are on the lookout for," he said.